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Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display wild growth. That is, splitting up beyond the normal limits, invasion which is destruction of neighboring tissues, and sometimes metastasis. Other parts the body via lymph or blood. These malevolent properties of cancer differentiate them from benevolent tumors, which are self-limited, and do not attack. Most cancers form a lump but some, like leukemia, do not.

Cancer can also be defined as is a disease in which a group of cells display uninhibitedly grow beyond the normal limits. Cancer is a varied class of disease which differ widely in their origin and biology. Any living being and even plants, can acquire it. Nearly all cancers arise steadily, as errors build up in the cancer cell and its offspring.

Cancer at the cellular level.

Cells are the building blocks and each of our body parts are composed of different type of cells. For instance; nerve cells for the brain, epithelial cells for the skin and muscle cells for the muscles. These cells are managed by certain things, and under normal conditions split to replace old and worn out ones. Cell with a nucleus is actually a vibrant and complex ordered living creature, complete with its own set of tiny appendages and made powerful by many chemical mechanisms that enable it to digest, reproduce, move, and communicate with other cells Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert (2002).

Cancers are caused by strange genetic material of the changed cells. Growth curb genes are immobile in cancer cells, leafing to the loss of normal purpose in them, such as accurate DNA replication, manipulating the cell cycle, course and bond within tissues, and communication with shielding cells. Since cells which replicate wildly due to mutations, if rectification and prevention is properly carried out, the mutations will survive, and might be passed along to other neighbouring cells.

Cells that can trigger cancer to develop.

By the help of some enzymes, the cancer cells leave the affected organs like the liver , and then enter the bloodstream. This brings them close to another organ like lungs, and with the help of leave the bloodstream and infects the new organ Merlo LM, Pepper JW, Reid BJ, Maley CC (December 2006). This spreading of cancer is called metastasis. It is therefore wise to prevent cancer at the cellular stage when cancer- if detected is very likely to be cured.

This is because the cancer causing cells can be easily eliminated before they spread the infection to the healthy cells. For instance, women are advised to take regular breast exams and even smear tests for breast and cervical cancer. If these cells are not gotten rid off they become more malignant and are untreatable hence becoming even fatal.

How cancer spreads

The human’s body consists of billions of cells. Cancer can be of a big problem in the body and can spread very fast too since is goes through body fluids; disrupt normal functions of the cells spread throughout other parts of the body. Cancer is a progressive disease, and this slowly gathers until a cell starts acting differently to its function Merlo LM, Pepper JW, Reid BJ, Maley CC (December 2006). For a normal cell to become a cancer cell, genes which control cell growth and segregation must be altered. These changes can occur at many levels, from gain or loss of entire chromosomes to an alteration of a single DNA nucleotide.

Cancer risk factors and what types of cancer they lead to.

Cancer is very much preventable by avoiding risk factors that include tobacco, overweight or obesity, low vitamins physical inactivity, alcohol, sexually transmitted infections, and air pollution WHO (February 2006). "Cancer". World Health Organization.

Heavy drinking: this increases the risk of increasing certain forms of cancer, mainly cancer of the esophagus, mouth, throat, and voice box. In women it may cause breast cancer. Drinking may also increase the risk for developing cancer of the colon and rectum.

Tobacco:  Smoking many lung cancer deaths. For smokers, the risk of getting lung cancer increases with the amount of tobacco they smoke daily, how long they have been smoking, the type of tobacco product, and how deeply they inhale. Cigarette smokers are also more likely than nonsmokers to develop several other types of cancer. Smoking may also increase the likelihood of developing cancers of the stomach, liver, prostate, colon, and rectum Merlo LM, Pepper JW, Reid BJ, Maley CC (December 2006). Cigar smokers also have an increased chance of developing cancers of the lung, larynx, esophagus, and pancreas. Ultraviolet radiation: UV radiation from the sun causes early aging of the skin and its damage that can lead to skin cancer. Artificial basis of UV radiation, such as sunlamps and tanning booths, also can cause skin damage and probably an increased risk of skin cancer. To help reduce the risk, by UV radiation, it is best to reduce exposure to the midday sun. Wearing a broad-brimmed hat, UV-absorbing sunglasses, long pants, and long sleeves offers protection.

Cancer-causing factors in lifestyle or the environment and the difficulty to identify them.

Lifestyle factors include diet, tobacco, and alcohol, as well as radiation, infectious agents, and substances in the air, water, and soil. These are hard to resist for many humans since they consider some as luxury and others as necessities (Reuters). Other factors lead to these risk factors too.

For instance;

Diet- many people will go for fast foods due to time management as they are ‘fast’ to get unlike well balanced diets that take time to prepare.

Tobacco and alcohol: many people when stressed will opt to take something that can make them ‘forget’ and hence go for alcohol. Others say that tobacco helps clear nose and hence take as flu medicine.

Radiation: many people especially women who especially live in coastal areas get addicted to sunbathing after swimming so as to tan their skin. Some are ignorant of the radiation consequences.

How people can protect themselves from exposure to known risk factors. Current findings related to the benefits of exercise as a treatment for cancer.

For one to be on the safe side, they need self discipline and control. This is so as to differentiate between risks and fun. People should also get informed on the real facts and myths. For example;

Women and sunbathing people should know what is the best time to bask under the sun so as to avoid the harmful Ultraviolet rays.

Smokers should use pipes or at least use the filtered cigars so as to reduce the risk rate.

Women should also go for frequent examinations for their breasts and smear tests for their cervix.

People should take time preparing good food since it is for their own bodies and not risk eating fast foods or unbalanced diet. They should also exercise more. Exercises are the one way in which apart from minimizing risk factor can help to beat the cancer if it’s already there. This it because with exercise, one makes his/ her metabolism faster and the body more active and lively hence easier to fight any pathogens Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert (2002)..

New innovations in technology that are currently being tried in an effort to treat and prevent cancer.

State-of-the-art surgical lasers: fully computerized no-radiation analytical instrumentation for breast cancer; an intelligent medical sensor that can be used to trail to a three-dimensional location. The waveguide fiber for endoscopic surgery; computerized check systems critical Patients; pain-relieving devices; The Medinol’s cardiac stent was purchased by agreement with Boston Scientific Corp.; and Biosense Ltd. Neuromedical Electrical Stimulation Systems Ltd. (NESS), a glove-like device that can stimulate movements in a paralyzed hand or arm. Another marketable innovation is the Savyon Diagnostics’ rapid diagnostics kit for fungal infections.

Medis El Cell Scan: is  an advanced electro-optical blood cell sorting tool to diagnose and sense early stages of cancer Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert (2002).

Ultra-high sensitive and fast diagnostic kits and Combact which has a unique technology for rapid bacterial analysis.

Code: Sample20

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