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Immunization or vaccination is the process of administration of a vaccine to a child or an adult in order to improve their resistance to infections by particular diseases. The vaccine is an antigenic mate that is injected or ingested into the human body to help boos the immunity ability of the body. The antigenic material is what is known as a vaccine. The word vaccination and immunization mean the same thing and can be used interchangeably. Vaccines work in a unique way tom prevent the attack the body by pathogens. In most instances the diseases that attack the body normally occur by entry of diseases causing germs entry in to the body. The activities of these germs in the body lead the symptoms that indicate the presence of the germs hence a person is said to be sick. The body in it own fashion mounts self defense through immune response which is the fighting powered that facilitates the body to recover from the disease. In this case the immune is produce through the bodies own natural mechanism as a response to the existence of a foreign body in the human body. On the other hand a vaccine is part of a disease causing germ or the whole of the germ that has modified to inhibit its ability to cause disease but still has the ability to cause a the immune response that the body performs when attacked by the disease.  This facilitates the body to develop immunity in the absence of a disease. Although vaccine has been instrumental in the prevention of diseases the rate of failure is over whelming. There have been numerous cases of children and even children contacting disease that they had already been vaccinated upon. Such cases have cast great doubt about the ability of vaccines to prevent people against lethal diseases such as measles.

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Vaccination has been successful in bringing down the spread o various lethal communicable diseases such as measles, polio, and chicken pox among other. Currents efforts are in place to eradicate polio from the face of the earth through vaccination. Although there is a risk of the development of polio virus strain that are resistant to Vaccination. Already there are signs of development of VAPP in several part of developing countries and therefore urgent action need to taken.  Vaccines are available for numerous other deceases. These include rabies, mumps tetanus and whooping cough. Mostly vaccines are efforts to develop vaccines for the prevention of the spread of the HIV scourge. Most vaccine is given to children at a tender age. This helps the kinds to create long-term immunity ability in. The different vaccines are meant for a variety of human disease that affects life

The availability of various type of vaccine and can be seen from various angles. The different vaccines are meant for different diseases such as the ones mentioned above.  Vaccines can be taken in orally for instance polio vaccines while other s are administered through injection, for instance vaccination against typhoid id done through is injections.  Other like DPT vaccine and hepatitis B require administration through injections. Also the vaccines cab is administered individually or together with others.

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Vaccines recommended for babies differ from on country to another or rather one authority to another.  The government also monitors and facilitates the vaccination programs through facilitation and creation of schedules.  For instance the Indian government requires that all children should receive vaccines recommend. Under the expanded program of immunization, children are required to get a tetanus shot, tetanus oxide given to the mother during pregnancy hell in protecting both mother and the child. Most important is that when a child is born it has to get vaccinated a against the seven major killer diseases namely DPT , BCG vaccine for tuberculosis, hepatitis B vaccine for hepatitis B, measles vaccine for  measles, and tetanus vaccine against tetanus

Various studies that have been conducted in various part of the world have indicted the vaccines can not be totally depended upon to help prevent the occurrence of disease.  For instance, studies conducted in different places to determine the response of measles to vaccine in both adults and children revealed that the measles is not 100% at preventing measles infection.  Mendelson et al in (1996) in a study conducted to determine the immune response to measles vaccination in the young Israel men revealed some cases of poor response to the vaccines revealed reduced immunity in some Israelites solders that had been immunized earlier. In fact some solders indicated no signs of having been immunized earlier.  Mendelson further notes that, in such a case, revaccination can be conducted to improve the immunity of people who have lost their previous immunity imparted to them by the primary vaccinations. However he is skeptical about that the second round of vaccination could still have very minimal impacts in some cases and no impact at all in other.

Kurubi at al (2009) also reports on the failure of infants to respond to measles vaccines in Papua New Guinea. According the finding of the study conducted by Kurubi et al (2009 only 52% of the infants in the country have developed proper immune response to measles through vaccination.  Not surprising though, a whole 36% failed o develop anything close to desirable immune response towards the condition.  This clearly illustrated that vaccines are not very reliable.

In some case the administration of the vaccines is very dangerous to the recipients and could cause more harm instead of the intended outcome. Such a scenario has been very common with polio vaccines.  The world health organization in the 90s set a campaign to help fight polio and reduce the cases of occurrence of the disease by 2030. However, the world health organization didn’t realize that administration of polio vaccines is also associated with negative effects such as paralysis. Actually there are various instances of vaccination of polio that has encouraged poliomyelitis kind of paralysis. Vaccine injections well as oral polio vaccines share this characteristics. Information recorded previously indicate that during the 1970s and 80s Romania had the highest of vaccine related Poliomyelitis paralysis in comparison to any other European counties.  In fact the rate was 5-17 higher than any other European country. Although I Romania case, this phenomenon could be experienced due to poor scheduling of injection and OPVs. The trend has been also exexperianced else where.  OPV is very commonly used in developing countries having been introduced by the Expanded Immunization program. The vaccine was presented to the individual national leaders and other organizations operating in these countries to make a choice between oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). To a greater extent the goal of eliminating polio in these countries has been achieved. However, there is development of anew risk in areas that us OPV in the vaccination against polio. These areas face the challenges of the people contracting vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). According to John (2004) the knowledge of VAPP has been very limited until recently. Also, there existed limited quantitative analysis concerning the disease. Recent discover on the other hand have shade more light on the issues and it is now official that continued uses of OPV could encourage the development o VAPP in the developing counties. Discontinuing the use of OPV is not a viable option either since it can facilitate the escalation of the chance for the rise of circulation vaccine-derived polioviruses otherwise known as cVDPV which have the ability to re-acquire viral capabilities. Occurrence of such a phenomenon will certainly lead to an outbreak of Polio.  However, in this condition immunization could still provided a solution.  As john (2004) asserts high rate of coverage of immunization should be maintained or IPV should be used to replace OPV in order to handle cVDPV successfully. Also, stopping the administration of OPV before achieving a high rate of or coverage of immunization activities with IPV is not advisable. Once the coverage of IPV attains coverage of 85% the withdrawal of OPV can start.

Another resent out break that has undermined immunization is the outburst of mumps in the University of Virginia. After the first case of mumps was diagnosed subsequent active surveillance revealed 52 cases. There was collection of 47 samples got from students who presented patriots documented history if despite a demented history. 31% of the sample tested positive for Mumps, or mumps RNA. Earlier, in 2006 a similar outbreak had occurred in Midwestern US. However, the two incidences were not. Surprising some of those infected had been had received shorts before and it was expected that the immunity systems would have resisted the attack. Similarly in 2004 Mumps attacked young adults who gad previously received shots to vaccinate them against mumps (Rosta, 1999)

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