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Although parenthood can be a life-enhancing experience, it may bring a number of negative consequences for adolescent males and their children. The post parenthood for the young adolescent male seems to be similar to those of adolescent mothers although, there is little data on the economic, health, and employment outcomes. The teen birth rate in the USA dropped to the lowest level in 2011, recorded in the last 70 years of tracking adolescent childbearing. The drop is good news; however, an incredible number of American teenagers become involved with undesired pregnancies every year. This has yielded negative outcomes on teen parents, especially adolescent males, as well as the society. For instance, while adolescent mothers may most likely become high school dropouts leaving them in deplorable poverty conditions, adolescent males are more likely to struggle individually with emotional and economic challenges that the unintended pregnancies bring, which results in a significant financial burden to them and the society at large.

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Background Information

A number of studies have reported that 30 percent of American women become pregnant before the age of 20 (Hamilton, 2012) and that nearly 13 percent of sexually active American male between the ages of 13-19 report to have been responsible to father a child (Suellentrop & Flanigan, 2006). Studies also show that teenage boys that have older partners tend to be more likely involved in a pregnancy. These studies indicate that teenage male who engage in sexual intercourse with partners three or more years older than them before attaining the age of 16 years are more likely to father a child compared to those who postponed sexual activities until the age 16-17 (Manlove et al., 2006).

Albeit being not as severe as those involving adolescent mothers, the implications of early parenthood also negatively affect adolescent fathers. Typically, they are likely to be involved in delinquent behavior, like drug dealing, drug and alcohol abuse. They also finish fewer schooling years than childless peering pears (Tan & Quinlivan, 2006). An earlier study reported that the adolescent fathers earn at average 3,400 USD less per year as compared to adult fathers between 20 and 21 years of age (Annie E. Casey Foundation, 1998).

Adolescent males have been an understudied population for many decades. Teen fatherhood tend to bring about similar consequences as observed in teen mothers, but the national programs that serve families with low income focus on young mothers and not young fathers. Without proper and responsible use of protective measures during sexual activities, adolescent male face an increased risk of unintended pregnancies. Adolescent males are said to be actively involved with social institutions that provide many settings on how to prevent unwanted pregnancy. In spite of the stereotypes, substantial evidence reveals that the adolescent fathers want to provide care for their children; however, this involvement does not assume financial support.

Effects of Teen Pregnancy on Adolescent Male

Adolescent fatherhood tends to be associated with a number of implications, both for the adolescent father and the child, similar to consequences as observed among the teen mothers (Hughes, 1994). These implications involve reduced educational achievement, greater financial strains, and to greater extents the teen parents often have less stable marriages coupled with poorer health, behavioral, and educational outcomes among their children. Adolescent fathers are prone to be faced with employment and financial challenges, thus render them more economically disadvantaged than adult fathers. The adolescent fathers are faced with roles of premature transition, adding stress to their daily chores and lives. Adolescent males are expected to combine both the challenges of adolescent development and chores associated with the transition to parenthood.

Multi-Risk Factors of Pregnancy for Adolescent Male

A number of studies conducted also have reported a relation between adolescent fatherhood and delinquency; however, this does not imply that all the adolescent fathers become criminals thus should not be stigmatized as such. The multitude of risk factors that have been identified include:

  • Decreased academic performances and higher rates of school dropouts;
  • Insufficient family income;
  • Increased involvement in antisocial behavior;
  • Increased deviant association among peers;
  • Living in neighborhood characterized with poverty.

A number of researchers have reported that young fathers often feel excluded from involvement in pregnancies by health professionals (Quinton, 2002). Health professionals are said to know little about the fathers, and they do not see the issue as central because they argue that the teens lack skills to engage with men. What a number of teens rely on is the quality of their relationship as an important predicting factor of their involvement during pregnancy.

There are hardly any research studies conducted, which touch upon the unique needs of adolescent fathers, as well as programs that aim at addressing their needs because early studies of adolescent fathers assumed them to be psychologically unstable and unprepared for paternity. There is a lesser amount of teen fathers as compared to teen mothers (Fagot et al., 1998). A large fraction of fathers revealed involved in adolescent pregnancies is aged 20 years of age or older. Fatherhood is harder to reveal than motherhood. This is because reaching the teen fathers is harder than reaching the teen mothers. Additionally, adolescent fathers are said to be reluctant as far as involvement in research studies concerned because of the fear of attempts imposing financial obligations for supporting a child or punishment for being involved in the pregnancies.

Factors obstructing adolescent males to care are attributed to lower socioeconomic status, lack of health insurance, and lack of regular sources of care. However, factors that help adolescent male to receive support required may pertain to access to confidential services, assistance in appointment making, and school-based health clinics. It is crucial for health care providers to render ongoing communication support and any other forms of backing to the adolescent father. Given that adolescent fathers are tend to seek health care for their children rather than for themselves, pediatricians and other health care providers can build on their established relationship as the child’s provider and pay attention to the needs of the teen parent, as well.

When adolescent male fails to take on the responsibilities of fatherhood, it results in severe consequences for the development of their children, the resources of their mothers, and consequential social costs (Kiselica, 2002). On the other hand, stable intimate partnerships can help both the adolescent male and women overcome social feelings of alienation and problems connected to poor childhood experiences. A good number of researches conducted have concentrated on these forecasts of early parenting. However, there is no information as far as continuing relationships between adolescent father, mother and their children are concerned, even though an intimate relationship, which is stable, is said to be a powerful constituent in terms of neutralizing social condemnation and problems pertinent to childhood.

The researches pointed to a remarkable lack of support from health services for young adolescent males preparing for parenthood. These are examples of good practice, but the adolescent male are mostly ignored or made feeling uncomfortable by support, in spite of their craving for information, advice and inclusion (Ford et al., 1997). A good number of adolescent male are said to have attended their clinic appointments or even showed some desire to participate. However, very few were reported to have any contacts with the care services, even though most of them show significant concern about the aspects of both pregnancy and child birth.


It is obvious that adolescent male frequently has problems in perceiving themselves as fathers. Empirical studies report that a good number of these adolescents did not involve themselves with their children after the child was born. Additionally, there is lack of association between earlier experiences and post-natal attachment that might suggests the importance of fatherhood to the adolescent male. However, rendering assistance to them in overcoming high risks associated with social exclusion will help them create an identity and engage in society on the positive side. Adolescent male are more likely to experience depression, incomplete education and decreased earnings. Additionally, they are more likely to have anxiety and be homeless or live in unstable household conditions, thus need any assistance.

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