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Free Example of Parkinson's Disease Essay

Parkinson’s disease (PD) falls under the category of motor system disorders. These disorders are the main cause of the loss and degeneration of dopamine-producing brain cells. This disease basically affects the cells of the nervous system which are responsible for controlling muscle movement. The disease kills dopamine cells and those which survive are disoriented in that they cannot function properly. Dopamine cells are important in sending signals which are essential in movement regulation therefore interference with this cells impairs movement coordination. At the moment the cause of the damages which is detected in the dopamine cells still remains unknown. Therefore Parkinson disease completely impairs the patient’s speech, motor skills as well as other important body functions. The disease is characterized by loss of physical movement; though it’s an extreme symptom of the disease. Other common symptoms include slow physical movement, rigidity in the muscles and tremor.

History of Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson disease has been known since the medieval times. During those times it’s was possible to detect the symptoms of the disease and even cure it. Despite these happenings everything was not formalized or documented until 1817. The first documentation was wrapped in an essay that was done by James Parkinson titled the shaking palsy. By then disease was not referred to as Parkinson’s disease but paralysis agitans. Discovery of the underlying brain biochemical changes did not happen until 1950. Arvid carlsson played a major role in the discoveries of the underlying brain changes.

Symptoms and disease etiology

 The initial sign of the disease is reduction in stimulation of the motor cortex which is usually done by the ganglia. The reduction in the stimulation is mainly as a result of inadequate action and formation of dopamine. The origin of the dopamine is the brain neurons which are referred to as dopaminergic. Other disease symptoms include cognitive dysfunction which is of a very high level. Other times patients may experience subtle language issues. Parkinson’s disease is both progressive and chronic. For these reason there is chronic progressive Parkinson which is characterized by postural instability, rigidity, tremor as well as bradykinesia. Therefore the chronic disease results from the primary disease.

Toxicity which may result from drugs, other medical complications as well as head trauma may also cause the disease. Parkinson’s disease is basically named after James Parkinson who gave a detailed description on the disorder in his shaking palsy essay. Some of the other signs of the disease include sleep and sensory difficulties, autoimmune dysfunction, neurobehavioral and cognitive complications among others. The common disease symptom is tremor. The tremor is at its highest peak when the limb is resting and it dies out or reduces when the person tries to move or catch sleep. About 30% of all the patients fail to experience tremor at the onset of the disease though it’s experienced as the disease develops.

The general body functions are impaired as a result of the disease. In many reported cases the exact cause of the disease is usually unknown the reason why it’s referred to as idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Other causes which are very rare include cerebral anoxia, toxins; drug induced complications as well as genetics. For a long time this disease has not been looked at as a genetic disorder though a few incidences indicates that patients had a monogenic form of disorder. Through the conducted researches it has been possible to identify a number of genetic mutations that are responsible of the disease. Most of the patients experience severe tremor in their hands, face, jaws, arms as well as the legs. Stiffness in the trunk as well as the limbs is common features of the disease.

Relationship between disease development and exposure to pesticides

Proper disease diagnosis solely relies on the patient’s medical history as well as the neurological examination. For these reason proper disease diagnosis does not occur easily because the doctors have to carry out many tests to rule out other medical complications. This disease mostly occurs in the elderly or people who have attained fifty years. There is still no cure for the disease. The ongoing research has indicated that both insecticides exposure and genetic mutations may make a person to be susceptible to Parkinson’s disease.  This conclusion was made after carrying out a research study on 207 Parkinson’s patients.

The research was carried out in 207 patients as well as other 482 healthy groups which were used as a control group. The research was carried out by a French team who were out to determine any ABCB1 gene mutations in the participants as well as their exposure to pesticides. ABCB1 gene mutations are not linked to Parkinson’s disease risks. Through this study the research team found out relationship between Parkinson’s disease and organochlorine insecticide. Results that were obtained indicated that men who had double ABCB1 mutated genes were 3.5 times prone to Parkinson’s disease than men who had only one copy of the mutated gene. The researchers concluded that, the interaction between ABCB1 and organochlorine is important in the development of Parkinson’s disease. These findings are very important in supporting the gene x hypothesis of pesticide interaction in the disease development.

The recent research has indicated that patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease can greatly improve if they receive deep brain stimulation in any side of their brains. This research was carried out by the Veterans affairs researchers. The researchers were out to compare two separate and different brain targets in order to determine the rightful side for deep brain stimulation. Motor function is greatly interfered with by globus pallidus interna (GPI) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). In their study the researchers inserted a fine wire into the two different brain areas and connected it into a battery to allow current to flow. Motor function significantly improved after the passage of the current which greatly stimulated the brain.

Subthalamic nucleus has been employed by many neurosurgeons for quite sometime though they had no solid evidence on its ability to cause the anticipated brain stimulation. Despite the positive aspects of employing this methods some further researches has indicated that STN targeting has some negative impacts which include psychological changes as well as cognitive changes. In this research the researches looked for the comparison between GPi and STN by using assigning 299 patients under the two targets. The results which were obtained revealed equally improvement in patients regardless of the system employed. More than half of the patients which were used had adverse side effects. The most common side effect that was identified includes incision site infection. Most of the side effects that resulted were tackled within a period of two years.

The researchers indicated that it was important to look at the prevailing symptoms as well as other underlying complications of the disease before settling on the appropriate side for brain stimulation. For instance one of the researchers noted that medication use can be drastically reduced if STN stimulation is used than when GPi stimulation is employed. Since the observed symptoms greatly depends on the type of medication in use its important for a patient with other complications besides motor problems to be placed on GPi since there will be no much reduction in the amount of medicine that one is using. People who are in advanced stages of the disease can really improve when they are put under STN or Gpi. Complications that may result as side effects can easily be managed by adjusting the necessary medication or through stimulation among other important interventions.

These new interventions are important to the patients as well as their practitioners because it paves way for development of a suitable therapy as well as brain target tailoring. Through the research it was concluded that both GPi and STN are effective in eliminating motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson’s disease. Therefore initial symptoms of the disease like rigidity, shaking, imbalance, and slow movements can be effectively solved by L-dopa medications whereas the advanced stage complications can be solved by employing STN and GPi.

Restoration of brain dopamine levels by the endometrial stem cells

Researchers carried out a study on the mice in the laboratory. They injected endometrial stem cells in the mice brains using Parkinson’s disease that was laboratory induced. The results revealed that the injected endometrial stem cells have the ability to over take the brain functions which had been eradicated by the disease. These findings raised great hopes to researchers because they realized that women with the Parkinson’s disease can be able to donate their individual stem cells. On the other hand it’s not difficult to get endometrial stem cells making it quite easy to liaise with endometrial stem cells banks in order to make a reservation of the cells for men and women with Parkinson disease.  Since Parkinson disease results from the death or loss of dopamine producing brain cells which are important in brain signal transmission the above discovery is of great importance in management of the disease.

Code: Sample20

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