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In the study, researchers did analysis of the experimental data subset gathered by ladd, Baek, and Graziano to discover if inmates incarcerated under different intensities of imprisonment make them to become worse than he was. To conduct the study, 561 male inmates were evaluated with corresponding classification showed that the level of risk for them to be involved in institutional misconduct was the same when they were imprisoned. The inmates were divided into two groups (Camp & Gaes, 2004). One of group was under the old system and was classified as Level I while the other group under a new system was classified as Level III. Of the 561 inmates, level I prisons admitted 297 inmates while the Level III prisons admitted the rest 264 inmates in California (Camp & Gaes, 2004). The researchers kept track of the two groups for nearly two years and the number of inmates in custody in the two groups remained constant throughout the period. The two groups were in the same location thou they had separate facilities and they had no contact with each other. If for a fact prisons are criminogenic, then the possibility of misconduct among the inmates should differ with the level of security assigned to them. Instead, the possibility is equally the same in that the inmates in prisons will always commit misconduct despite of being assigned to either Level I prisons or Level III prisons (Camp & Gaes, 2004).

Operational definition used by the researchers.

To test whether prisons are rehabilitative or criminogenic, the researchers have specified the meaning of the main variables involved in the research: the ‘prison level’ and ‘misconduct’

Inmates "Misconduct" has been defined to mean and include breaching of rules in the prison and whose outcome may call for disciplinary actions; for example, prisoners refusing to clean their living areas, possessing prohibited personal property, phone calls misuse, in addition to criminal acts, like murder and physical attacks.

Prison levels were classified as Level I prisons for high security prisons and Level III prisons for low level security prisons.

Example of inductive logic.

Inductive logic begins with observations and seeks to find a pattern within them (Babbie, 2008). For example in this research, the researcher observes that it is widely accepted that prior criminal history envisages prison misconduct.

Deductive logic presented in the results.

In deductive method begins with an expected pattern that is tested against observation (Babbie, 2008). In this research study, a deductive logic states that criminogenic effect can result when a lawbreaker learns new criminal techniques from other convicts or his strengthening attachment with other inmates. The author uses the research carried out in the Department of Corrections prison system in California for their empirical analysis in the new classifications of criminal inmates. 

The research study is a quantitative design. The research is designed to empirically identify the presence and magnitude of differences between individuals or groups of individuals. The research is typically designed to test a predetermined hypothesis. This technique covers ways in which the research contributors are chosen at random from the population that is under study in an unbiased way. The studied group receive intervention that are standardized with specific statistical method are used when testing the predetermined hypotheses with regard to the relationships that exists between the specific variables. Researchers can be considered external to the real research.

The findings of the study. After the analysis of the misconduct data, the writers’ results showed that inmates in Level III when randomly assigned to the security environments of Level I and III, their behavior were similar as those convicts in Level III environments. The study also confirmed that the number of convicts with misconduct Placed in either of the two levels of prisons was not significantly different. The rate of misconduct among the inmate was close to Level III inmates: 62% (Camp & Gaes, 2004). In line with the California prison classification system, presuming that the different groups of inmates in the different levels had almost similar propensity to misconduct, the researchers came to a conclusion that Level III prisons did not give the prisoners confidence to be greatly involvement in misconduct in prison (Camp & Gaes, 2004).

Level I institution, on the other hand, did not appear to reduce the misconduct in level III inmates thou the environment was less violent or criminogenic. If level III inmates housed in level I were affected by the prison environment, one would have expected that the rates of misconduct would be lower compared to those inmates of Level III housed in Level III institutions.Regardless of which level an inmate is assigned, studies has shown that inmates with the same criminal histories are equally likely to commit misconduct in prison (Camp & Gaes, 2004).

In your opinion, could the study have been done differently or improved?

This study can be improved by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approach.  The inductive qualitative approach will be based on exploratory which one does not set or restrict the course that the study may take.It is essential to have all the stages detailed as they will be used in this research as guideline while tackling with the questions related to the research by just inserting detailed explanation of the data collection, analysis, coding, etc. In this type of research, iterations of phases must be well noted if they are any because of the complexities involved when conducting this research. The research proposal is to be divided into a number of broad stages with time and funding estimates provided for each stage.

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