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Non-supporting articles

 Black Enterprise

First of all, in order to provide some arguments of his point of view, the author provides his readers an example of a colored person who was driving his car in Washington, D.C. The man was near his house when “the officer demanded to search the car”. The black and the members of his family who were also in the car were suspected to be involved in drug traffic. This example demonstrates that the man experienced discrimination as he was going to be accused due to some racial causes. By means of this story, Joyce Jones persuades the readership that racial profiling has an abundance of negative sides. What is more, the author admits that “unfortunately Wilkins’ experience is far too common for African American drivers”.

Joyce Jones notifies that this phenomenon should be solved as this way of apprehending and stalking a criminal is beyond the legal frame. This is the reason why, in his article, the author also provides some solutions of this problem such as documenting all pieces of information about the acts of racial profiling.

Furthermore, Joyce Jones states that such study should also include “an analysis of existing data, such as complaints and other information concerning stops, motivated by race and other bias”, and the police must always explain the reason why they stopped this or that particular person.

All in all, the author admits that racial profiling is a problem which must be solved, but it is almost impossible without African American drivers “doing their part to ensure the Department of Justice gets all the information it needs to make a sound assessment”.

Racial Profiling: Why Eight UAE Students Were Kicked off a Flight

Glenn Hutchinson finds that it is almost impossible to demonstrate the urgency of the issue without giving some pieces of information about an incident of 8 foreign students who “were going to a Conference called Today’s Students, Tomorrow’s Leaders,” but one passenger worried that they could be terrorists and alerted the flight crew”.

By means of this example, the author shows that such terrible situation could occur with anyone who is a black, an Arabian, or a Latino. The students did not give rise to consider them terrorists, moreover, they admitted that they “are not blaming the police” because they were just “doing their jobs”. This utterance is a one more proof of the non-aggressiveness of the students.

In the article, the author admits that racial profiling does not have any advantages as it is completely motiveless. After some terrorist attacks organized by Arabs the attitude of the society has changed considerably. An integral role in creating various prejudices was played by terrorist attacks of 9/11.

Glenn Hutchison notifies that the airport security must be of paramount importance for American national security, but the problem of racial profiling is based on the fact that “it’s disturbing how fear controls us”.

The final sentence of the article is its conclusion and the main point at the same time. The author states that ‘racial profiling, without question, attacks the core values of our society”, and one can not help agreeing with him. In accordance with the article, a democratic society is peculiar for the equal rights of all citizens, and even the most tragic events should not cause violence and abhorrence towards the citizens.   

What Can Cities Do To Ease Racial Tension. Jet

The author of this article admits that racial profiling is “inflaming racial tension nationwide and is one of the most critical issues facing law enforcement today”. In the article, it is notified that the problem lies in the social stereotypes which are peculiar for contemporary society.

In order to prove this fact, the author notifies that the solution of the problem is based on the policemen who must “be more approachable and reestablish trust within the community”. Colored people suffer from racial profiling, which is a form of discrimination, because of the lack of proper actions of the policemen. The author states that “it’s up to police leadership to set clear policies against profiling”. It is evident that the prerequisites of racial profiling comprise biased citizens who do not want to change their point of view concerning various racial issues. These stereotypes make an abundance of colored people feel uncomfortable in the society.

Furthermore, any prejudice concerning colored people are not based on any relevant data whereas “one of the reasons why (racial profiling) persists is because of a lack of diversity, which causes a lack of perspective”. For the purpose of making the arguments unbiased and exact, the author includes various citations of well-qualified professionals in the text of his article. These references persuade the readership that they can trust the information they have an opportunity to observe.

Moreover, the author finds racial profiling as a serious problem as it always dishonests a personality. Each fact of racial profiling underscores that the citizens are not equal. This peculiarity must disappear as soon as possible, and the police are one of the major means of solving the problem of racial profiling as their actions can influence on the social behavior.

 Half of All Black Men Are Victims of Racial Profiling, Poll Finds. Jet

The title of the article states that the problem lies in the fact that racial profiling is too wide-spread. In the article, the author underlines that “overall, nearly 4 in 10 Black – 37% - said they had been unfairly stopped by police because they were Black, including 52% of all Black men and 25% of all Black women”. It is evident that such behavior of the police not only showed that they found colored people more likely to commit a crime but also caused numerous inconveniences for these people.

Furthermore, the author admits that “Blacks aren’t the only Americans who say they have been targets of racial or ethnic profiling by police”. In order to provide only reliable information, some statistics was included in the article under consideration. For example, “one in five Latino and Asian men reported they had been the victims as well”. The fact that this data can be shocking for numerous citizen all around the world demonstrates the seriousness of the situation.

The author of the article states that this phenomenon is not only the prejudiced attitude of the police. He notifies that, in their everyday life, ordinary Blacks, Latinos, and Asians face with racial profiling as this concept also comprises “poor service in stores and restaurants, disparaging comments and encounters with people frightened or suspicious of them because of their race or ethnicity”.

The article under analysis provides numerous arguments which prove that racial profiling is a problem peculiar for Americans. In order to persuade the readers that too many people suffer from it, the author tries to do his best in choosing those pieces of information which were provided by reliable sources. Furthermore, he finds it wrongful and unjust to use racial profiling for any purposes.

Why Racial Profiling Is a Bad Idea

First of all, the author admits that it is “rather a destructive, ill-conceived, and ultimately inaffective law enforcement technique”. The clear arguments of this thesis are provided by the author in his article. First of all, Tom Head argues about the fact that the technique of racial profiling is useful. It is evident that “when suspects are detained based on suspicious behavior rather than race, police catch more suspects”, and the productivity of the police rises. Furthermore, racial profiling prevents the police from using those techniques which are considered to effective as they pay too much attention to those people who are innocent but belong to the same race or ethnic as the criminal.

Moreover, the author of the article under consideration has the same point of view as the other ones whose works were discussed in the paper. He admits that the phenomenon of racial profiling is an obedience of civil rights.

The author adds that “racial profiling prevents the police from working for the entire community”. When the police suspects one of the community member on the ethic ground, it is evident that the colored people do not find it appropriate to apply for the police as they do not believe that policemen can help them.

What is more, the author of the article finds that racial profiling “is morally wrong”, and, in several cases, it can cause some racially-motivated violence. As a rule, colored people are less likely to be considered to be law-abiding citizens even if they have never committed any crime. It is also significant to note that if law enforcement does not protect all citizens and suspect some of them on the racial or ethnic basis, it is obvious that the ordinary white people are more likely to offend the Black.

Supporting articles

Court ruling paves to racial profiling. Associated Press

Laurie Kellman, the author of the article, provided the point of view represented by the representatives of the Republican Party. They admit that all colored people, the Asian, and the Latino should be checked for the immigration documents. They notify that “it strengthens the right of the states to make and enforce their own immigration policies”.

Such kind of racial profiling is aimed at the improvement of the situation with “11 millions illegal immigrants”. The racial and ethnic basis is quite useful for searching for them.

The author of the article states that in spite of the fact that the Democrats disagree that the adoption of the law on the police requirement “to check the status of people who might appear to be in the U.S. illegally”, it was considered to be constitutional. The principal prerequisite for the adoption of this law was “the state’s frustration with the burdens that illegal immigration and continued drug smuggling impose on its schools, hospitals, criminal justice system and fragile desert environment”.

Although the law discussed in the article is quite controversial, it is evident that the politicians believed that it can give an opportunity to control the rate of illegal immigration. Nowadays, it is a serious problem for the U.S.A., and such kind of racial profiling can solve this problem considerably.

The article under consideration is quite informative as it provides one more point of view on racial profiling. The author gives an example of the sphere where it is considered to be useful. This example is the principal proof of the advantages of racial profiling. The author does not try to persuade the readers; only pure facts were provided in the article.

Probable Cause. Los Angeles Magazine

To begin with, the author states that “police profiling is vilified as institutionalized racism”. The author does not think that such statement is true as the actions of the L.A. Cops, which were taken into account in the article, can not be considered racism.

Moreover, in spite of the fact that the activists of the anti-racial communities protest against them, “police complain that the relentless reporting on profiling obscures what they consider to be an irrefutable fact: It works”. The policemen do not understand why racial profiling has a negative meaning as while trying to catch the crime or to find some suspects, policemen want to do their best in taking into consideration not only the race or the ethnic a person belongs to. The process of criminal profiling “involves multiple identifiers: age, sex, race, clothes, gang signs, time, place, and activity”.

What is more, the representatives of the police underscore that the technique which an abundance of people call racial profiling is more than useful. “It gets drugs, guns and violent killers off the streets, and it saves lives – primarily of minorities, who are the most victimized by the crimes”.

This argument was used under the objective of demonstrating the foes of racial profiling that it is their mistake to accuse the police of using unconstitutional techniques. Race is an inevitable part of searching for the criminal as this feature is more than significant for finding a suspected. Although a lot of foes of racial profiling underline that the police spend so much time on this technique that it prevents them from using other methods, racial profiling is one of the principal parts of investigation. It does not mean that applying to this method means obeying law or one’s civil rights. It is just a way to reduce the number of criminals.

DNA and a New Kind of Racial Profiling. Popular Science.  

Jeffery Salter, the author of the article, starts his discussion with the fact that “nothing in American police work is more controversial than racial profiling”. In any case, he admits that the new technologies which can point out some genetic differences of people can be aimed at searching for the criminal and exclude the opportunity to make a mistake. The author considers racial profiling as a notoriously significant element of the investigation.

First of all, he denotes that “the very fact that genetic markers linked to ethnic origin are, in a sense, cosmetic, that is, they affect outward appearance – makes them potentially useful in the hunt of criminals”. In several cases, the genetic analysis makes it possible the police to state if the criminal or a suspected is a Black or a White. For instance, it is a relevant fact that “a private gene lab concluded that an unknown serial killer was a medium-to-dark-skinned black”. The police suspected that it was a white person.

However, “the critics fear that the DNA sketch concept opens the door to biased, unscientific racial profiling”. The author of the article does not find it true as the technologies discussed in it are going to be given an added gloss. Furthermore, “police sketches from eyewitnesses accounts are notoriously unreliable”.

In the article, the author makes a conclusion that genes labs can be more than useful for the police. If its results show the race of the criminal, it is easier for the policemen to find him/her. It is obvious that this method of investigation is one of the kinds of racial profiling, but, in this case, there is no injustice towards colored people in such actions.

In accordance to Jeffrey Salter, racial profiling which is based on the results of the DNA testing is a democratic way of improving the situation with the criminal rate.

The Benefits of Racial Profiling when at war. Student Life

In his article, he expresses only his own opinion on this issue. No pure facts are used as only the personal experience of the author was included in the work. He admits that there are some inconveniences for a lot of people, but it is a necessary part of guaranteeing safety for every citizen and preventing from terrorist attacks. “Unfortunately for the vast majority of law-abiding Arab-Americans, Al Quaida and similar groups don’t have a very diverse membership, and if we’re expecting to find them we’ll have to look in a decidedly “discriminatory” manner”. By this statement, the author desires to emphasize that the law enforcement agencies do not have to choose if they should use racia profiling or not as the necessity of this method is obvious.

“I want my airline captains to be as paranoid as NRA-card-carrying militia members when it comes to armed men wanting to board planes to take them to the President without sufficient documentation”,  Patrick McKenzie writes in his article. This is the reason why any ways of safety control are appropriate as the result is more important.

Moreover, the author underscores that the absence of racial profiling in the work of policy can cause negative effects. His proves his point of view by admitting that “The only alternatives that I can see to the judicious use of profiling include too many exploding airplanes”. The author is sure that it is worth to manage supporting citizens’ security by means of racial profiling than to find it undemocratic.

The conclusion which the author draws is that “this is the heart of the issue, a certain amount of profiling is necessary in the current circumstances”. This sentence shows Patrick McKenzie’s views on the current situation with social profiling. He does not want to change his opinion although, in the end of the article, he denotes that he is ready to observe any other point of view on this issue.

A thought about Racial Profiling

In the article, the author wants to decide if racial profiling is actually beneficial and useful. In order to make his mind on this issue and to prove his point of view, he uses two references. He admits that both of them “argue that under right conditions – and conditions not too different from those obtaining in many countries at present – racial profiling is justified”.

For the purpose of proving the advantages of racial profiling, Simon Kellner denotes that “racial profiling, by hypothesis, can be an effective tool of policing, increasing the likelihood that investments of police effort will lead to arrests”. In accordance with the main idea of the article, an abundance of people feel safer if they understand that racial profiling is used by the policemen. Furthermore, in numerous cases, racial profiling can not be considered to be discrimination. “You don’t know whether or not you’ll be a member of the profiled group”, the author admits, and the support of racial profiling is not only notifying that someone is more likely to commit a crime due to his race. It is possible that an advocate of racial profiling can also be a suspect. The majority of those people who support racial profiling understand this.

On the other hand, even if some discrimination is present because of the police paying “extra attention to members of a certain race”, this situation can be improved by some financial compensation as it is more useful to spend some sums of money on this than to refuse from using racial profiling.

In conclusion, the author gives the readers some questions without providing any answers to them so that he underlines that that he does not want to persuade anyone in the rightness of his opinion. He just provides some arguments of the racial profiling benefits, and the readers just have an opportunity to agree or to disagree with him.

Taking into account all arguments provided by both the advocates and the foes of racial profiling, it is evident that the opinion of the latter is true. There are several reasons to state it.

First of all, all law enforcement agencies, irrespective of the sate they are located in, must protect the rights of all citizens. It does not matter if this person lives in the country for a long period of time or if he/she is an immigrant who has recently arrived to the state. Such protection of civil rights comprises the necessity to define all people as equal ones. No person can be respectful because of his/her race as the fact that it is a personality makes each representative respect him/her. Racial profiling is a kind of discrimination which leads to the low attitude of the police towards colored people. What is more, immigrants from Arabic countries and Latin America suffer from such kind of discrimination. Every day, they have to worry if they are not arrested or even sentenced because of the biased policemen who pay too much time on suspecting innocent people. The time, which is wasted due to these circumstances, can have a considerable influence on the process of the investigation. This is the reason why racial profiling affects not only the dignity of each personality who has to face it but also has a negative impact on the police productivity. All such methods must be excluded from the practice of the policemen.

Furthermore, modern society has already created an abundance of stereotypes, and a lot of them touch upon colored people and the Muslims. On of the principal prerequisites of such stereotypes was the terrorist attack on the 11th of September. It is a demonstration of the unprecedented violence, and no one can disagree with it. On the other hand, it is an irrefutable fact that this terrorist attack was organized by a group of people who were radical in their actions. It is evident that these people and their successors must me punished, and the governments as well as the law enforcement agencies need to do their best in preventing such attacks in future.

Apart from this, politicians should not be oblivious to the human rights. If some representatives of the Arabic community caused so many deaths, it is not necessary to prosecute any person who belongs to the same ethnicity. Only a small part of Muslims are radically oriented, and the majority of them want to live in safety without being afraid of their future.

Moreover, one of the most cardinal mistakes of numerous policemen is their tendency to suspect only Arabs in terrorism. As a rule, they tend to forget that white people can also become terrorists. In spite of this, there are a lot of cases of white people who caused a lot of deaths. This fact is a proof that racial profiling is illogical. If a policeman stops an Arab because he suspects him to be a criminal, he should doubt about the orderliness of any citizen of the state.

What is more, the similar situation is with colored people. The police is often likely to consider them drug-dealers. Even if the person’s behavior is not strange, he/she is stopped by the police. For instance, there are an abundance of cases when a car is stopped and searched for drugs because of the driver who is a colored person. This is an example of racial profiling, and it must be illegal. As a rule, such acts of racial profiling cause numerous inconveniences for the drivers and the passengers. Very frequently, it prevents them from reaching their destination on time and results in several inconveniences. Almost in all cases, there was no reason to stop a Black as the person was innocent. That is why it is evident that the effectiveness of the racial profiling technique must be put under question. It is also a reason to admit that it must be exchanged with an other more effective and democratic technique as soon as possible.

Furthermore, much more attention should be paid to other ways of guaranteeing security. These methods must not discriminate anybody as their aim is to support peace and make the life safer.

Another evidence of the negative effect of racial profiling on the lives of millions people is the problem caused for the immigrants from Latin America. Unfortunately, nowadays, there is a stereotype in the society that these people have problems with immigration documents. On the other hand, it is necessary to notify that in order to make everything possible to prevent illegal immigration, it is significant to provide more strict control on the border. If it is guaranteed, it will not be necessary to apply for racial profiling technique in the streets or shopping malls as all illegal immigrants will be caught by the police and punished as soon as they are going to try to cross the border illegally.

One more negative side of racial profiling is creating the reason for people to doubt about the effectiveness of the law enforcement agencies. For instance, a colored person or a descendent either from Arabic or from Latin America countries does not believe in the fact that the police in their city, town, or village can help them in case of emergency. These people are not confident that they can be supported by the law enforcement agencies as their representatives tend to accuse them for various crimes although they are innocent law-abiding citizens.

In spite of this, racial profiling is a considerable problem for colored businessmen who are not sure if their business is going to be successful. Except from the prejudice which, in numerous cases, leads to the lack of clients and partners, law enforcement agencies can cause some pressure for the firms run by colored people. This is another proof of the necessity to break the stereotypes so that all remnants of racial discrimination must be devastated as soon as possible.

Racial profiling is also known to have a negative influence on the youth, especially children. It is natural that even the smallest children can watch policemen arresting a colored person even though his/her behavior is not strange enough to be suspected. Now and then, it may happen with the parent, relatives, or friends of a child. In a case of a colored child, it may result in a fragile self-esteem in future as, since childhood, children are persuaded that they belong to a lower race by means of such actions. Fragile self-esteem almost always leads to the unsuccessful life; this is the reason why racial profiling has a negative impact on the psychological state of not only those who have to experience it but also for those who just observe it.

White youth is also affected by racial profiling as the presence of this technique in the police activities makes persuade them that the crimes are mostly committed by colored people, terrorist attacks by organized by Arabs, and Hispanic are illegal immigrants. This fact is more than biased, so it a grave mistake to demonstrate the young people this. Furthermore, if this process continue, these stereotypes, which are present in the modern society, will never be overcome whereas white people will consider themselves be of higher rank than colored people. It is of common knowledge that such way of thinking is the violation of human rights, and racial profiling can only support it.

In conclusion, it is noteworthy to state that racial profiling is an antidemocratic way of investigation. In spite of this fact, it is also nonproductive as innocent people are suspected while criminals have one more opportunity to commit another crime. This is the reason why the government and the law enforcement agencies should control the using of this technique, and those policemen use this technique must be punished. What is more, while stopping a person, a policeman has to explain the reason for it. In any case, the appearance of a person, his/her clothes can not become a reason for an arrest as all people are equal, and no one can be discriminated because of his/her race. In order to prevent the policemen from using the racial profiling technique, it is significant for them to be taught all other effective methods of investigation and searching for a criminal. If they have an alternative, they will nor be eager to apply to racial profiling.

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