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Free Example of Randomized Controlled Trial Essay

The title “Randomized Controlled Trial of Psycho Education Program for the Self-Management of Chronic Cardiac Pain” clearly explains content of the study. It has been designed with the variables of the study incorporated. Information about population has also been added through term “Randomized”. The length of the title is, however, too long that diverts the reader’s attention. Being very comprehensive, it lacks the needed feature of being concise.

Theoretical concept that is developed in the introduction part provides details of the variables in the study but lacks considerable insight required to understand the aim of study. This detracts attention at some places and requires consistent efforts to reread. The author attempts to provide a lot of details regarding the topic, but the attempt has added more complexity than clarity. In conceptual framework it has focused on the eventualities from the variables that made a part of the study rather than putting more stress on the need of this study. Measures of the studied concept are just referred to as demographics and baseline measure but no details have been mentioned. However, other variables have been discussed with respect to the literature review.

To meet the human rights protection requirement, approval from central university in Canada and three universities affiliated teaching hospitals was acquired. This is the only information provided and no details regarding these university hospitals are given. This missing information constitutes the important part and its provision would have added due strength to study. The participants have been selected with their informed consent to the interview. Complete information regarding study was posted on the hospital website, in the newspaper and clinic setting. Since details from the participants have been collected and were to be answered based on the completion of their questionnaire, hence they can be identified. The aim of the study is to increase the benefit for patients overall.

The problem statement has been discussed while developing theoretical framework. It provided understanding regarding the problem that is addressed in the study but the problem has not been separately described. The article provides considerable information of significance of the study to nursing. It has also shed light on the importance and benefits of the study to the field as well as the patients. The research variables have been well defined with reference from literature. The article also contains comprehensive details about content of the variables and measurement details of sub-variables. Results of the problem study were finally adopted for the clinical applicability.  

The research question and hypothesis are not formally included in this article. Research questions were formally devised and are an important part of the research article. Their inclusion aligns the paper with the formal structure designed for the paper. They also add clarity in understanding the aim of the paper once theoretical background is developed. For the clinic perspective, the research questions formally addressed are queries that arise in practice and are developed from some instances whereas the hypothesis answers to those questions. Hypothesis shall contain two or more variables that present answer to the question raised for discussion in the research question. Clarity is another major characteristic that shall be embedded in hypothesis. In this article, though, separate research questions as well as hypothesis are not developed but are addressed clearly. Hypothesis is a statement that claims to declare the research question with presentation of an expected outcome; hence, significance of this component for an article must be carefully adhered to get comprehensive paper and it lacks in this paper.

Literature review is collection of references from the studies that have led to the development in the field with their systematic as well as critical review. From literature review and identifying gaps the new research is developed and areas that are left unattended are picked for research. The article has been well developed based on the literature of the earlier articles. It has taken considerable support from the researchers in developing the entire framework from variable and measurement tools. The article has combination of the literature from studies of the 90’s to very few from the recent past. The case of this study has been develop and presented with references from precedent studies to reach the concrete base of analysis.

The design for the study is experimental. The paper experiments in the impact of low cost six weeks psychoeducation program on the discussed variables. The hypothesis design is also of considerable importance. Hypothesis reflecting the experimental design also provides information about effects of experimental treatment on the outcome. The study was experimental in terms of determining the impact of activity with certain arrangement on the selected factors. It has provided good amount of information in developing the concept and every variable usage has been supported by evidence from the past literature and while replicating concept it has drawn support from wide range of study material.

The sampling technique has been well defined in the paper. With description carefully defining the target pollution as well specification for population and for the selected sample, this paper has adhered to requirements. It is also implied in the title about the population being those with Chronic Cardiac Pain. The article has also clearly adhered to biases of previous study that has been attempted to reduce in this study and also the biases of this particular study. For the sample size the author has suggested that further validity can be obtained with larger sample size and has also referred to the power analysis for adequacy of the sample. The sample size was justified with information containing more people in each group than required for the study based on the scale and exclusion of outliers which can impact the result with biases.

Data have been collected initially by the research assistant by phone followed by one on-site collection of information regarding demographics. It does not carry explicit information regarding the data collection technique, however, suitability of the metric as has been mentioned in detail. Data collection technique is congruent with the research question as it has to address the impact of psychoeducation on the self-nursing; hence, queries to be addressed based on the information on questionnaire is suggested method. For the data collected, reliability measure that has also been calculated found to be above threshold for each of the variables. Validity of the data has also been well-documented.

Quantitative technique for the analysis has been very specifically considered for variables and change analysis has also been considered where found necessary. The level of measurement fits well with the type of statistics used and the study has well developed the connection between statistics and logical answering of the research questions. The formal structure has been adhered by discussing the statistical measures along with the tabular presentation of results. It has also used the model to represent the study flow with detailed path and activities mentioned.

The article does not address any information regarding assumptions made for the study. It has presented limitation regarding follow up time that does not allow inferring the long term sustainability of the observed effect. For conclusion, the results have been well-documented based on theoretical background and research question. It has also mentioned generalizability of the findings on the population of patients with chronic cardiac pain. The study has also made recommendations for future studies with multiple facilitators, larger sample size with environment other than university teaching hospital.

Code: Sample20

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