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First group of Jewish Immigrants to US: Where From and Where did they Land? When? Why did they come? : How Were They Treated?
Towards the end of the 19th century, many Jews migrated from Eastern Europe to different parts of the world, and the United States is among the nations, where they settled in large numbers. Immigrants, who came from Poland, Russia, Germany or Prussia and Austria, together with other immigrants from Eastern European regions, did not have any land in possession and led impoverished lifestyle, since they were mostly dislocated soon after the elimination of serfdom. While suffering from problems related to overpopulation and poverty, most of the peasants faced cultural and religious oppressions, and, in some other occasions, violations through legal frameworks or in the form of physical violence.
Since many of the Eastern Europeans, who went to the United States, were peasants, they were grouped among the poorest ethnic communities joining the nation. Most of them got employment in industries in these regions where they settled, although history reveals that they eventually found themselves in the rural areas of the Franklin nation. Immigration from the Eastern Europe to the United States were met with resistance, which managed to close down traditions. Some slices in works, for example, the history of Deerfield by George Sheldon reflects on how the presence of the Eastern Europeans was felt across the nation. It makes clear that some people worked towards opposing their entrance into the nation (Sheldon 1895).

Mordecai Sheftall and Hayim Solomon: Who Were they? When did they Live? Where did they Live? What are they Remembered for?
The early American Jews were extremely influential in the American Revolutionary war since they provided leaders who contributed fully to America’s history. The Jewish heroes were reputable in their input, and Mordecai Shetfall is namely one among them, and Hayim Solomon is another.
Mordecai Sheftall was born in 1735, in Savannah, in the state of Georgia and lived a peaceful life of a successful merchant. Mordecai Sheftall made up a network across the world with the purpose of connecting with friends and relatives in shipping and mercantile. In essence, his holdings before the revolution were innumerable. He had a solid reputation that was highly regarded by authorities and the government, at the time. Mordecai Sheftall used his resources for the benefits of the society, by providing funds to support the men he was involved with during the American Revolution. He is mainly remembered for his contribution in the Savannah Commissioners Committee, which was a group that advocated the American Independence. The hostile days of the revolution saw him rise to power, and became Deputy to the General of the Continental troops of the Southern California and Georgia hence the most superior Jewish officer during that era.

Hayim Solomon was a prominent Jewish hero and the most prominent Jew in the history of early America. Hayim Solomon was born in 1740 in Poland. At the age of twenty, he travelled around the entire of Europe gathering knowledge of finance and currency. Later, he applied this knowledge to his benefit. After his travel adventures, he joined Poland in the war against Russia. Hayim Solomon escaped the Russians and fled to England, soon after he had acquired enough money. He travelled to the United States in 1772 and arrived in New York during the winter. He set up a brokerage company in New York, which brought for him both many customers and various loyalists. Solomon heard of the fighting at Concord and Lexington and joined the Sons of Liberty to support the colonials. This brought him a lot of trouble, due to a fire breakout that ruined 25% of New York City. The British General blamed this on the Sons of Liberty and arrested all of them. Hayim Solomon was arrested, as well. However, he took advantage of the situation to act as a translator facilitating communication between the British and the German soldiers. He took this opportunity to convince 500 Hessian men to convert to patriotism and fight the colonial powers. Two years after being imprisoned, he was arrested a second time and sentenced to death on claims of being a spy. However, he managed to escape by bribing the guard with a few gold coins. He fled to Philadephia, where he reestablished his own company and managed to get an appointment as the Postmaster Foreign Ministers. His efforts were recognized, and he was appointed him to loan the American cause. He also contributed by funding the battle at Yorktown after Washington approached him personally on the issue. He is remembered due to his $20,000 contribution to fund the battle, which sealed the victory for the United States.

"A Government Which Gives toBigotry no Sanction": Who Said this Originally? Who Repeated it? What does it Mean? Why is it Important?
The utterance, "A government, which gives to bigotry no sanction" was originally said by Moses Seixas in 1790, during the visit of the first president of the United States to the Newport city. The city had suffered immense losses during the revolutionary war. The Newport city had been invaded by the British, but the American soldiers liberated the city to rescue the residents who were mainly Jews. George Washington’s visit was quite ceremonial, due to the acceptance of the Jewish worship in the area by the Christian community. The Jews looked up to the newly formed government especially the president, to do away with the barriers to civic equity and religious liberation facing the American Jews. The words, "A government, which gives to bigotry no sanction" were Moses Seixas’ expression of his vision in the letter to the president on behalf of the Jewish congregation and expressed the Jewish community’s faith in the president.
In response to this letter, the president, George Washington, explained the true freedom. The newly acquired freedom of the Jews was no longer toleration as as though it was an indulgence, but a natural inherent of their natural rights. Washington’s vision was that the new independent America would have its citizens enjoy freedom, practice individual rights and conduct religious worship on the basis of freedom and not through permission. According to Washington, religious freedom preceded any law or constitution, and all people possessed liberty of conscience. George Washington, repeated the words, "A government which gives to bigotry no sanction," in this letter. The words imply the intent to establish a country, in which the authority upholds religious freedom, and a religious framework that balances respect for religious diversity and the citizen’s responsibilities. These are fundamental rights simply because they are the foundation the American independence that embraces natural rights for its citizens.

The 1st Amendment to the Constitution: What are its Two Parts? What do theyMean? What are Some Practical Applications? What are Some Potential Issues?
The 1st amendment to the American constitution is the chapter that covers the Bill of Rights. This is remarkably the most significant part of the American Constitution. It stipulates the freedoms of speech, religion, writing and publishing, freedom to put forward grievances to the government and freedom of tranquil assembly. The main parts of the 1st amendment to the Constitution cover the guarantee of freedom of religion. This clause prohibits the Congress and the Federal Government from making any legislature to restrict people to any religion. In fact, the clause detaches the state from the church in that the government must not make any religion official or superior, in any way. In essence, a citizen’s religious practices are immune from government interference. This clause restricts any government interference to religious freedom in that no religion can be prioritized to others by the government. Therefore, the clause gives the citizens of the United States a freedom to be part of a religion of their choice, and be free from being compelled to join any religion.
The second main part of the 1st amendment to the Constitution of the United States is the clause on freedom of expression, which gives citizens immune freedom to express themselves without interference by the government in any manner. The government is required to justify any interference in cases where the content of speech is to be regulated. In addition, the clause affords individual citizens' freedom of expression equal to the members of mass media. The practical application of these clauses is the choice of a religion by a citizen and peaceful demonstration to express grievances to the government. The potential issues that are most likely to emerge are the government’s interference in broadcasting of information, whose content the government seeks to regulate. There is no clear jurisdiction as to what the government can regulate and which it cannot.
What was the Pale of Settlement? What Difficulties did Jews Have There? What are/were Pogroms? When did they Happen?
Despite the fact that the Jews lived in Eastern Europe from late 800s, there had always been limitations to where they could dwell. With minimal exceptions, Jews were specifically restricted from residing anywhere, inside or around Imperial Russia, which was a Russian Orthodox throttle hold. Therefore, the discrimination and harassment of Jews went on for a long time, until eventually a large portion of the Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania that was the Jews largest settlement, was snatched away by Imperial Russian. These restrictions and constant problems led to Empress Catherine the Great to establish the original Pale of Permanent Jewish Settlement. This engrossed the nations that are currently termed as Belarus, Moldova, Poland, Ukraine and Romania.
Pogroms were brutal insurrections and slaughtering, which were launched against Jews and often motivated by government authorities. In the Russian empire, pogroms took place from 1881 to 1917. Other difficulties that were faced by Jews included slavery, hard work, poor housing, lack of food, water and extensive torture by the Russian Empire.

What was Ulysses S. Grant’s Decree Against the Jews? When did He Issue it? Why did he Issue it? What Actually Happened?
In December 1862, Ulyssess S. Grant issued a Decree against Jews that was referred to as General Order No. 11. Issued in the course of American Civil War, the Decree drove out all Jews from Kentucky, Mississippi and Tennessee. This was followed by the initiation of anti-Semitism that took place in the 19th century, in American History. This was meant to shut down the Jews who were imposed to extreme discrimination that they had never experienced. The main reason of issuing the Decree was that the Jews as a class had a tendency of defying all regulations of trade developed by the Treasury Department, as well as department orders. This order demanded that the Jews vacate Kentucky, Tennessee and Mississippi within twenty-four hours after reception of the order. This order was given to the administrative district of the Union Army of occupation, which was given the responsibility of eliminating the Jews from these districts.
The Haskalah/Enlightenment in Europe: What was it? When did it Take Place? How did it Differ in Different Parts of Europe? How did it Affect Jewish Immigrants?
The Haskalah was a movement that came up to bring the European Enlightenment to the Jewish World after economic, social and cultural alterations in the 18th century. It had its supporters, who were referred to as Maskilim, and they were knowledgeable in various subjects: education, philosophy, culture, politics, economics and religion. Revolution reached the personal European Jewish societies in different means. The movement was initiated in Western Europe, established by the Berlin Philosopher Mendelssohn Moses. It extended eastwards to Galicia and was augmented further in Russia. This movement was strongly supported by a number of Christian philosophers and motivated by enlightened despots. However, this movement was extremely strong in some parts of Europe, whereas being average in other parts. For example, where it was formed, the movement was distinctly pronounced, but it was not quite effective in some parts, where it arrived after sometime. The movement enabled the Jewish gain hope for settlement, since it harmonized their obedience, devotion to religion and tradition with incorporation into the European communities. In other words, the movement brought massive changes to the lives of Jews.

What 4 Factors Affected Jewish Immigration in the 19th Century? (2 in Europe and 2 in the US Factors)
European mostly experienced the Push factor, which encouraged people to shift from their places of origin and settle in other regions due to the intensive negative factors that led to Jewish immigration. In most cases, these factors were contributed by the harsh circumstances that the Jewish people underwent, which forced them to move from one place to another. Another factor that was common in Europe was the pull factor, which attracted Jewish migrants to shift to new areas. A clear example was the availability of resources and employment, since the Jewish faced difficulties of unemployment. The factors that were remarkably common in America and affected Jewish immigrants were high rate of discrimination and slavery. The White Americans hated the Jews with passion; they rejected them in almost all regions making their lives extremely hard. After some time, however, they decided not only to punish Jewish, but also enslave them, by giving them adversity and intensive work that had no or little pay.

The Triangle Factory Shirtwaist Factory Fire: When did it Happen? What Happened? Why is it Remembered? What were its Consequences?
The Triangle Waist Company or the Triangle Factory Shirtwaist was a Company established by Max Blanck and Isaac Harris. Both of them had emigrated from Russia as young people, convened in the United States and owned a few shops jointly, by 1900. They named their shops Triangle Company since they had planned to open a company with that name. After some time, they shifted their business to the Asch Building around the Washington area and Green Street in New York. They expanded substantially and, by 1911, the Triangle Waist Firm was among the biggest blouse businesses in New York. However, on March 25, 1911, a fire began on the eighth floor of the Asch building, which was the property of the company. It was around 4: 30 p.m when workers were preparing to go home that the fire broke up. Workers tried to put it out; however, the fire was too severe on them. Workers attempted to alert people on the ninth and the tenth floor, but only those on the ninth floor heard and some of the lucky ones evacuated safely through the elevator. However, those on the tenth floor were unlucky, and most of them lost their lives. The two people, Rich and Harris, climbed onto the roof of the building and were rescued by people from the neighboring buildings. Therefore, the consequences of the fire were massive deaths of workers who were on the ninth and the tenth floors. The deaths were more than twenty-five people. The incident is remembered because it was a tragic that could not be forgotten easily.

What is "Auto-Emancipation"? Who Wrote it? Why did he Write it? What Effect did it have on Jewish Immigration to the US?
Auto-Emancipation was an essay written by Leon Pinsker in the late 18th century. The reason as to why he came up with the essay is that he was convinced that Jews stay in Russia, which was not going to be safe. He was a leader of the assimilations movement among Russian Jewry and a contributor to Rassviet, which was publication weekly. This was after a brutal pogrom in Odessa, in 1871, when the government-inspired violence also came in, with an aim to fight the Jews, enslave them, and eventually eliminate them. This situation convinced Pilnsker that Jewish people were not safe in Russia. Therefore, Pilnsker came up with the essay when he travelled to Europe, and failed to establish a Jewish national movement. The essay pronounced that Jews would never experience social equality to the gentiles until they have the state of their own. Therefore, he called a conference of Jewish leaders to address the problem. This book made the Jewish immigrants in the United States feel relieved since it defended their rights.

Code: Sample20

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