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Abstract

The bottling processes involve a series of steps that must be monitored in a certain manner that would ensure that all processes are well coordinated. This is important particularly because the consumption of the carbonated is very high. The companies responsible should therefore have well-defined systems that ensure that every step taken is economical, efficient, and effective. This work is going to explore about the various processes carried out during bottling of carbonated drinks.

The basis for this is pet bottling company. The paper is divided into two sections. The first section involves analysis of the flow chart representing various steps carried out during bottling process. The last section would analyze the logistics concerning the flowchart process. The Statistical process control tools shall be discussed include the Pareto analysis, capability analysis and control charts. However, it should be noted that control chart is more applied in the bottling processes

Bottling processes

The bottling of carbonated drinks is made up of a number of processes. The modern filling system is designed in a manner that the optimum performance and accuracy in filling process is, and the preservation of maximum product quality is guaranteed. For better understanding of the filling system, some general remarks must be made. It is important first to understand the ingredient used. From this understanding, it would be easier to articulate the various section of the filling system. Water is one of the key ingredients as far as bottling of the carbonated drink (Steen & Ashurst 2006).

Water constitutes 90% of the carbonated drink. Water therefore takes the greatest part as far as the bottling process is concerned. The soft drink companies spend a lot of capital on water acquisition and treatment. Water supply and treatment would this constitute the greater part of our discussion as far as bottling process is concerned. During bottling, the supply of water as well as the quality of water used must monitor closely. In most bottling companies, the main source of water are the rivers, the lakes, the wells and boreholes, rain water and even the ocean. Water from the source must be assessment for quality and then treated accordingly to ensure that the final product of water realized from these two processes meet the standard requirement. These standards vary from country to country (Steen & Ashurst 2006).

However, in Europe, water meant to be used in soft drink must comply with the EC Drinking Water Directive 80/778/EEC. Achieving this standard requires treatment of all incoming water before it can be bottled. However, most of the soft drink manufacturers rely in water from the water companies. These companies normally treat water and hence their water is normally fit for human uses such as drinking cooking and washing. However, for the case of the soft drink manufacturers, this water does not fit the required standards. Therefore the company is has to further analyze the water. In-depth analysis must be made. It normally carried out on monthly basis. Additionally, the company checks the basic parameters related to water quality daily. Tablets can be used to accomplish such basic measurements. The concentration of chlorine, for example can be determined by putting the tablet in the water and then the resultant color would be used compared against the color chart to determine the concentration of chlorine and so on. Regular test for microorganism is also done on daily basis (Steen & Ashurst 2006).

On of the common microorganism is the cryptosporidium. A procedure has been designed for removal of this form of microorganism. This procedure is normally conducted on the daily basis. Briefly, all water used for soft drinks must be free from microorganisms, unwanted smell, clear and colorless and, especially if it is to be carbonated, free from dissolved oxygen. Furthermore, treated water has to be tested for microbiological levels, alkalinity, and free chlorine. It must be noted that water is not only used in bottling process but also as a cleansing agent. Consequently, a lot of water is used every day. This knowledge is important as far as the bottling process is concerned. Water conservation needs to be practiced at all times, corresponding with ensuring the veracity of the product. Water treatment is a very important step as far as bottling is concerned. It constitutes the rate-determining step (Steen & Ashurst 2006).

The kind of treatment process to be adopted depends on the source of such water. Various treatment practices adopted for water from various sources shall be reviewed briefly. It should be noted that Water from borehole constitutes one of the reliable source of water for a soft drinks manufacturing companies. Most boreholes provide very reliable water quality from the aquifer. They supply water at a temperature, which is conducive to efficient carbonation. Only when the aquifer is near the surface is there usually any risk, because little time is required to replenish from possibly contaminated land. Whether the water comes from a borehole or from the town mains, it must comply with the legislation regarding water as well as meet the company water standard. This generally implies some form of water treatment. In the simplest form of treatment, the water would just be passed through a sand %uFB01lter to remove any particulates (Steen & Ashurst 2006).

 A sand %uFB01lter is usually carbon steel vessel containing sand on a bed of gravel. %uFB01ve, or sometimes six, openings, controls it. Sideway pipes are incorporated just below the level of the gravel. Water is introduced into the vessel from the top, often through a single tunnel directed at the roof of the vessel to ensure a more even distribution through the sand, thus maximizing the effective area for %uFB01ltration. The suspension and other solids collect in the sand, and for this reason, they must be back- washed regularly. The backwash process is achieved by feeding water in a reverse direction. This backwashing needs to be carried out weekly for several hours until the water is running clean, which is usually tested through a test %uFB01lter membrane. If the %uFB01lter membrane is acceptably clear then the backwash process is considered complete. Coagulation is another process. During coagulation, the water from the sand filter is passed through a vessel with filled with colloids that have small diameters. They include small suspension, bacteria, and other particles. Due to their %uFB01ne nature, they can stay in suspension for long periods (Steen & Ashurst 2006).

They carry the similar charges, and cannot attract each other. This prevents them from combining into larger particulates, which would then settle because of gravity. It is necessary to apply some chemical methods to help them settle. The final step during water treatment involves the use of polishing filter. At this level, cryptosporidium is removed. If the water is hard, it is usual to install a coagulation device, though in current plants it is preferable to use ion exchange, this is because of the difficulty in controlling the coagulation process. In areas where large amounts of fertilizers have been used, the water is often high in nitrates. These need to be removed by ion exchange. The most common method employs aluminium sulphate, commonly called %uFB01lter alum, which is added in a controlled amount to the incoming water. Ferric chloride is also often used as an alternative coagulant. It is standard to use a mixer that enable the company achieve uniform dispersion of the aluminium sulphate as quickly as possible, the amount of alum added being controlled in relation to the water %uFB02ow rate. Chlorination of the water is frequently used to ensure it is free from harmful microorganisms (Steen & Ashurst 2006).

 The carbon %uFB01lter would then remove any residual chlorine. Finally, the water should be passed under an ultraviolet (UV) lamp to ensure %uFB01nal disinfection. Nitrate is another common menace that must be checked during water treatment. Higher level of nitrates in the water has many health effects. Water must therefore be passed through systems that can remove nitrates. Nitrate removal systems include ion exchange, reverse osmosis, distillation, bio- de-nitri%uFB01cation and electro-dialysis. The most commonly used treatment approach is ion exchange, the same technology water softeners employ. In this type of system, chlorides displaces nitrate, and the resultant nitrate waste is %uFB02ushed into a holding tank. Depending on the application, it is often more desirable to drill a deeper well or tie in to an alternative water source than to treat the water for nitrate because of the high levels of brine discharge from such system, electro dialysis is another cost effective method normally adopted. It depends on the general principles that salts dissolved in water are ionic. These ions are attracted to electrodes with the opposite electric charge. Membranes can be constructed to permit selective passage of either positive or negative ions. The dissolved ionic constituents in a saline solution, such as sodium ions, calcium ions and carbonates, are dispersed in water, effectively neutralizing their individual charges. The electrodes would carry electrical through the solution, with the ions tending to migrate to the electrode with the opposite charge. The denitrified water is then passed through a system that removes microorganism (Steen & Ashurst 2006).

 Alkaline reduction is another process done. Calcium carbonate is the main source of alkalinity. It also causes hardness. Ion exchange is the most method used to reduce alkalinity. Chlorination is the third last step taken. Water must be passed through chlorination system to remove bacteria. A certain amount of residual chlorine is left in the water to overcome any problems through the pipe work system to the customer. If chlorination is included in the water treatment system, as required by many major brands, this usually requires an extended contact time to give the chlorine time to effectively kill any bacteria present. Factories often use 8 ppm for 2-hour contact time with a requirement that total coliform bacteria and faecal coliform or Escherichia coli are both totally (Steen & Ashurst 2006).

Careful dosing of chlorine through a metering system in relation to the water %uFB02ow rate is required. The out feed water also has to be monitored to ensure that the concentration levels set in the standard have been achieved. If not, a feedback control system must be incorporated to alter the dosing level to bring the situation back under control. Sometimes chlorine dioxide is used as an alternative to gaseous chlorine. There are some advantages to using chlorine dioxide over chlorine gas, as it is simpler to use and the dosage is more readily controlled. After chlorination it is necessary to remove the chlorine using carbon %uFB01lter. These vessels are very similar in construction to sand %uFB01lter. They use activated carbon, preferably acid cleaned. The activated carbon is specially prepared for this purpose by specialist chemical suppliers iron removal is also done. However, iron does not have a lot of health hazards (Steen & Ashurst 2006).

De aeration is the final step. The lower the oxygen level in the water, the less risk of product deterioration there is. For these reasons, the inclusion of de-aeration plant is of the utmost importance to the producer of carbonated soft drinks. The most common type of de-aerator sprays water into a tank under vacuum. This is then pumped into a second tank, where a small amount of carbon dioxide is present as a stripping gas, a process known as re%uFB02ux. Early systems utilized one or the other of these processes, but by combining them, we get the best of both worlds. The resultant water is now safe to be mixed with other ingredients. Several ingredients are used during processing of the soft drink. Their roles are to increase the shelf life of the drink as well as ensuring that it may exhibit a characteristic identity throughout. term ‘carbonated drink’ applies to beverages containing constituents of technological or nutritional value designed to enhance the appearance and stability of the product and to ensure its organoleptic properties are maintained for a reasonable shelf life (Steen & Ashurst 2006).

Carbon dioxide is one of the ingredients added to provide sharp test. Acidulants are other ingredients whose primary role is to provide the thirst-quenching properties, which are the result of stimulation of saliva %uFB02ow in the mouth. The common acidulants used include the citric acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, and phosphoric acid. Other minor ingredients include the flavoring, colors and stabilizers, saponins, antioxidants. It is now apparent that The main ingredients of a carbonated drink product are water, sugar or other sweetener, acid, sometimes fruit juice, %uFB02avours and emulsions, colors, preservatives, antioxidants and of course carbon dioxide. Acids give the tart taste to a soft drink and are usually the third main ingredient. The three principal acids used are citric, phosphoric and malic acid, though other acids such as tartaric, lactic, acetic, fumaric and ascorbic are occasionally considered. These can be delivered either in powder form or as a liquid in bulk. With modern metering systems, the use of bulk liquid acid is now becoming the norm. Sugar in all carbonated drinks represents another major constituent. This is sucrose extracted from either beet or cane (Steen & Ashurst 2006).

Whether a company takes the sugar in a granular form for dissolving on site, or as a liquid is usually dependent on the price. A typical soft drink will have some 10% sugar. Flavorings, which may be natural or arti%uFB01cial in nature, allow a wide variety of drinks to be produced. Syrup is usually prepared in the syrup room in a concentrated form, typically in the ratio 3 parts syrup to 17 parts water. The syrup is prepared normally in batch vessels using water and liquid sugar feed through volumetric %uFB02ow meters. The ingredients would be pre-mixed in a stainless steel bucket and added to the syrup vessel. High preservative levels were required in the product to ensure product security. The state of the syrup room often needs attention, in that risks from overhead beams that are difficult to clean, and similar problems associated with older sites, make product quality an ongoing issue. The flow chart below represents the flow chart of the PET filling lines (Steen & Ashurst 2006).

Statistical Process Control Tools

From the above process, the results shows that the Statistical process control (SPC) tools used are effective. The two tools used are the Capability Analysis and Pareto. These two tools are critical in the process of purifying water.

Capability Analysis

This very valuable process is used in controlling and evaluating. This means that the capability analysis will ensure the company produces results or products that meet the customer and standards requirements. In the PET Bottle Filling, process of a Carbonated Soft Drink, this tool will ensure the products meet the needs of customers in the market. In addition, the capability analysis is crucial because the process need to be improved in order to maintain the required standards in the market. It ensures specifications are clearly outlined in the process because capability analysis will ensure errors and deviations are corrected. This is crucial given the improvements the company needs in the process to improve its performance. This is because it will help determine the variables and ranges of out. In addition, the results can be adjusted in future depending on the capability analysis tool measurements and what is required.

This type of tool is effective especially in the treatment of water. Water treatment is a very important step as far as bottling is concerned. It is rate-determining step. The kind of treatment process to be adopted depends on the source of such water; hence, capability analysis need top be factored in. Various treatment practices adopted for water from various sources shall be reviewed briefly. Water from borehole constitutes one of the reliable sources of water for soft drinks manufacturing companies. Most boreholes provide very consistent water quality from the aquifer at a constant temperature. In fact, they often supply water at lower than ambient temperature, which is highly conducive to efficient carbonation.

Performance of capability analysis is inevitable because the set of calculations need to be done in order to ensure there is accuracy in the entire process. Carbonated drinks pass through a long process for it to be considered fit for consumption by customers in the market. This means that the system should meet the set specifications or requirements in each process by use of CHART runner and SOCpack. This is noteworthy because it will ensure that the data fits the system by controlling the limits that come from the control charts.

Capability analysis is used in quality control in the company. It is especially used when the ingredients are added in the process of producing carbonated drinks. It describes several methods used in monitoring the quality of the products especially in the production process of the carbonated drinks. Though the company has adopted capacity analysis tool, it has to be analyzed so that the production process analyzed in the company without many complications. This means that the long term improved performance of the company can be achieved without straining the employees.                                               

Complying with the process requirements is necessary because competition in the market is stiff; hence, forcing the company complies with the system requirements. The company is working on the strategy through the capability analysis to improve the processes in carbonated drinks production. Quality control is crucial to customers in the market because the process capability indices will guide to the entire process.

Pareto analysis

Pareto is one of the Statistical process control (SPC) tools that will the company improve its performance in the market because it will help in locating or identifying the problem. A cost Pareto principle provides a lot of details to the company’s about what should be done. This is in order to specify what one need to do in the market in order to avoid too much competition. In addition, it shows the impact it has on the process of production of carbonated drinks in the entire process. This means that Pareto is dictated by the 80/20 rule where 80% of the returns are generated from only 20% of the total activities of the company.

Therefore, the problems of the company can be solved if the existing processes are improved within a certain period. This will avoid production of low-quality carbonated products. This means the Pareto analysis will be often used in the company to create the accounts of Pareto that will guide in all the processes of the company. The occurrence of every activity in the company can be monitored so that the process that consumes many resources can be eliminated. Production of carbonated drinks is quite a long process; hence, the process should be monitored closely. The principle of factor sparsity is crucial from the results obtained from the company’s performance. From operations and performance of the company, Pareto analysis tool will help improve the performance of the company. This means that the company needs to adopt Pareto analysis tool so that the results can be improved rapidly.

The sales of the carbonated drinks produced by the company are critical because it should satisfy the customers for it to gain competitive advantage in the market. Business consultancy is crucial because the Pareto analysis process can be maintained. This is possible if the experts can explain to employees in the company so that they can keep on aiming at improving the quality of the carbonated drinks products. This means the company cannot assure the customers in the market of improved product’s quality and profitability to the investors without adopting the Pareto analysis tool. A common rule of thumb is used in the business operations. This is because it will help increase sales volume by 80% through maximization of 20% of its customers or clients in the market.

Pareto analysis principles are linked to Pareto efficiency because it is in the context of wealth and income among all employees in the organization. The graphical over view of the Pareto analysis is crucial in the development of new concepts in the company because all the process problems can be addressed immediately before causing many problems. The graphical overview is easy to analyze because of its simplicity on how to understand and apply in real-life situation. This means the analysis conducted will help in the analysis and detecting faults that may occur in the process. Detection is instant because most of the problems can be analyzed and proper or corrective action taken immediately without delay. This means the problems in the process can be corrected; hence, many problems can be avoided in the process.

Recommendations

For the process of producing carbonated drinks by the company to be effective, there are some recommendations that need to be adopted. The company should adopt secondary packaging so that the new products developed are of high quality. The main reason for secondary packaging is to ensure the containers used in the primary container are properly utilized. This is because of the increasing demands of the traders, suppliers, distributors, and customers. It will satisfy them because the containers will not be contaminated. In addition, the PET process will be clearly stated because of the principles and guidelines that are set in the process (Kelller 2004).

Inspection should be regularly done in the system and the entire process so that it avoids breakdowns and poor-quality products. The inspection system is critical because it will help the company produce high quality carbonated drinks that can compete favorably in the market with others. Furthermore, inspection will ease evaluation and control of the entire management system; hence, enhancing its effectiveness and efficiency. There should be the introduction of the factory design and layout because it will ensure benchmarking and performance measurement is effected. Because of this control system, experts need to be employed so that they ensure the process is clearly maintained. The risk assessment team is crucial in this case because they will detect the errors or deviations in the system.

To deal with the increasing importance of the distribution and production planning; the carbonated drinks should be comparatively analyzed with other companies in the industry. This means that the supply chain management should be linked to the soft drinks demand in the market. The supply chain management system should be computerized and analyzed effectively so that it can satisfy the customers and other stakeholders in the market.  In relation to the drinks, supply chain is important because it will ensure the carbonated drinks reach the customers without delay on the way (Basu 2008).

The new technology is essential for the production of carbonated drinks. Therefore, the company should adopt it so that the carbonated drinks produced meet the international standards and satisfies the customers. The advanced technology will improve the image and reputation of the company because the products will meet the customer’s requirements. The new technology will be effective and efficient in the production of the carbonated drinks. This means the technology that should be adopted is maintained so that the production process is continuous and reliable. For this to be effective and efficient, experts in the field of food and beverage, engineering, microbiology, and chemistry should be employed. This will ensure professionals who understand what they are doing perfect in ensuring the process use will lead to high-quality products.

In the production of carbonated soft drinks, there are new apparatus that should be installed so that it helps in the preparation of effervescent waters and other components in the reaction process. The old apparatus and equipment should be replaced with the new ones so that the drinks meet the international standards. Commercial development is necessary if it is suppose to compete favorably with other companies in the market. The aerated mineral water should be used in the company if it wants to maintain high standards of its products. Though the process is long, it should be strictly adhered to so that technical problems can be detected and controlled immediately (Arthur  2001).

The Nooth design should be introduced so that the carbonated juices maintain the smell and the taste that customers want. This will be enhanced by the two Statistical process control (SPC) tools, which are capability analysis and Pareto. The two tools should be implemented immediately because it will assist in improving the quality of the carbonated drinks produced in the company. This means the design adopted should meet the international standards so that the quality of the products is improved. Quality products will help the company attract and maintain the existing customers.

Control charts

Control chart constitute the key element of the processing plant. It is the most applied statistical process control charts. The chart is used to track how bottling process is going on. It helps the processors monitor the process and make hasty intervention in event of any problem. This chart is normally obtained by taking out the number of bottles from the line at random for a period of , let us say a day and then the contents are measured. From the values arrived at, the mean and standard deviation is calculated. These values would be used to draw the chart.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the process of production of carbonated drinks should be improved and monitored closely. This will ensure the company achieves its set goals and objectives. In-depth analysis and research must be conducted. It is normally carried out monthly. In addition, the company must check basic parameters on a daily basis so that errors can be corrected immediately. Tablets can be used to accomplish such basic measurements. The concentration of chlorine, for example, can be determined by putting the tablets in the water and; then the resultant color would be used compared against the color chart to determine the concentration of chlorine and so on.

Regular test for microorganism is also done on a daily basis in the common microorganism is the cryptosporidium. There are procedures that have been designed for removal of this form of microorganism. This procedure is normally conducted on the daily basis in order to avoid blockage of the system. The Pareto and capability analysis tools should be adopted so that the quality and general performance of the entire process. This will help the company produce high-quality products to be sold to customers in the market (Andersen 2007).

Owing to the %uFB01ne nature of the filtering particles, they can be suspended for long periods. They carry the same charges, and repulsion prevents them from combining into larger particulates, which would then settle because of gravity. This process is crucial because it ensure there are impurities in the carbonated drinks produced by the company. It is necessary to apply some chemical methods to help them settle; and a carbon %uFB01lter that will help in removing any organic material and possible taints and odors in the system.

Code: Sample20

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