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Takaki gives an account of historical differences that have existed in the US and tries to review their sources. He carefully explains the injustices carried against various groups and cautiously tries to give reasons to that led to the occasion. This is the first attempt to explore sensitive issues that have touched America in the past.

Though America is today viewed as the greatest democracy in the world comprising of multiracial, multi-ethnic society, this book gives an insight of disparities that have happened throughout history and have not been brought to lime light. These differences continue to have their impact on the modern society. Ronald Takaki makes a step to venture where no other writer has tried and gives a historical background of the differences that occur and divide the American people. Distributive justice is required if any society is to have sustainable development. This means that all citizens have to be given equal opportunities to develop the nation. This brings about a sense of belonging and these results in more hardworking and innovative citizens.

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African Americans arrived to the country as slaves. They were mainly shipped from Africa during the agrarian revolution to come and provide free labor to big farms established in the country. At the end of slave trade, the slaves did not go back and they settled in the country. During the times of slavery, the Africans did not have rights and theirs was just to provide free labor for the emerging industrial sector. They did not own land; they were provided with poor health care services and did not have trade unions to fight for their rights. At the end of slave trade African settled and they started earning though at poor pay. They started forming trade unions to fight for their rights. The climax of this was in the 1960’s, when the outspoken human right activist Martin Luther King gave his famous speech of “I have a dream”. In the Speech he longed for a country where all men were equal and where citizens would be judged by the content of the character and not the color of their skin. He dreamed of a day when the children of the white and the black would dine in the same table. In this, he was longing for the end of social discrimination based on race. Through continued struggle and activism the blacks in America have climbed the social ladder and they are contributing enormously to the American economy. They are now one of the best sportsmen in the word and they also dominate the music world selling millions of albums across the globe. The epitome of the black liberation in the US is the election of an African American as the president of the US.

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The Indians came to look for more lucrative jobs created by the rapid industrialization in America. The Americans perceived the Indians as uncivilized and hence they were absorbed to less paying jobs like rail building and cotton picking. The images in their temples were referred to as unholy and this portrayed them as people with low morals. Jefferson displaced the Indians by signing of treaties because he believed that the occupying the fertile lands was a waste because they did not know how to utilize it. They were taken to reserves designated for Indians and blacks. The Chinese similarly came to seek for better jobs as they were running away from the harsh economic time in Asia during the Chinese civilization. They were seen as competitors and this made them to be sidelined.

The story of the Native Americans is that of a fading society .They were pushed to the extreme west where they were placed in small settlements and neglected by successive governments. Native Americans were viewed as an un improvable race. They were viewed to have inherent traits that hindered them from progress and therefore could not easily be integrated into govt. They were as seen as backward.

The Mexicans also got to US to seek greener pastures, because of their race they were more acceptable compared to the blacks and hence were easily absorbed. The Irish were viewed especially by immigrants from England as poor and undeveloped and hence had to struggle to get their rights. The Hispanics were known as job takers and were accused of denying the Americans their jobs. The Mexicans and the Irish were white and hence were more acceptable. They had fewer social hurdles to cross.

The Japanese Americans cannot be ignored in the history of the US. They bravely fought against Italian troops and also against the racist Nazi Germany troops while their families were placed in camps by the American government. The Jews also so worked in solidarity with Africans to bring to an end slave trade and they have also contributed immensely to advancing the technology of the US. Thousands of Filipinos were recruited in Hawaii to work in labor farms.

The success of the us as the leading world economy can be associated with its multi-cultural racial diversity. From the Chinese who spied on illegal immigrants from Mexico, the African soldiers who fought in the civil war to maintain the union, the discovery made by the Jews and the Japanese who fought in the Second World War. Though some social inequalities exist up to date, America is a classical example of how racial and ethnic diversity can be used to bring progress in a nation. This contrasts many other countries where racial, ethnic and religious differences are a source of conflict and war.

The future of American Multi racial society Is likely to see the minority groups try to assert themselves and demanding for more chances and positions in government. This is likely to get some resistance from the Anglo-Americans who feel their dominance is fading in the American leadership, economy and technology. However US will continue being the leading nation in eliminating social disparity in the world. It will remain an icon where racial difference has brought progress and not destruction and stagnation. The US will continue drawing its strength from its multi-racial society. It’s a lesson to nations to embrace diversity.

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