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Type analysis for organizations plays an important role in determining the position of the organization as compared to its competitors in the market. There are different types of analysis that can be used to perform organization analysis. These include SWOT analysis, force field and resource Analysis The analysis used in this case is SWOT analysis. Using this type of analysis the management is capable of analyzing an organizations strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats and develops and prioritizes actions to take as a result. Therefore according to Westcott (2005) SWOT is a “common component of the strategic planning process which involves looking at both current internal strengths and weaknesses of the company’s core competencies as well as future opportunities and threats in the external market place” (p.107). This type of organizational analysis is a systematic assessment of an organizations internal and external environment and it   also identifies attributes that affect its ability to achieve or attain its vision and to improve and protect its competitive advantage (Westcott, 2005).

Westcott further outlined that SWOT looks at how the organization fits to the current reality and that it is a preliminary indication of the company’s current competitive position (2005). He continues to say that SWOT analysis should be based on objective data that allows past to current to probable future comparisons of the market place, competitors, products and services besides the company’s performance. When doing the analysis the information used in the process should be reviewed for items that provide significant advantages or risks that should be addressed by strategy (Westcott, 2005). Relative ratio of advantages to risks which may impact the aggressiveness of the strategy should never be overlooked. Another important factor that should be looked at is to ensure that the items affecting the organizations critical success factors must of course be reviewed in detail (Westcott, 2005).

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In addition Wicks (2004) states that SWOT analysis examines the organizations mission statements, goals, organizational structure, leadership, personnel and financial resources, organizational and professional cultures and existing product mix and markets. Through these factors the management is able to analyze its performance as compared to other competitors in the market. In this type of analysis one asks whether the proposed investment is inline with the organizations mission statement and goals. A sophisticated SWOT analysis would consider how the company would perform under different scenarios if a certain project goes forward and if there will be new opportunities or threats the project offers.

Dobson, Starkey & Richards (2004) further established that SWOT analysis may prove useful as a simple ready-reckoned in evaluating the organization. The analysis should according to Dobson, Starkey & Richards (2004) help in determining the firms direction and performance especially profitability. They also continue to say that while doing the analysis more emphasis should be on quality in relation to the business environment. The steps involved in analyzing the organization should involve identifying the current strategy in the organization. Secondly one should identify the key changes in the organizations environment then one should identify the key capabilities and limitations of the organization putting into consideration the firm’s resources. Lastly one should examine the statements against each other and put the necessary scores (Dobson, Starkey & Richards, 2004).

Westcott (2005) also found out that the findings obtained in SWOT analysis should help the organization to design future initiatives which could aid the company to overcome any identified deficiencies. He further determined that success or failure may be a function of the method of deployment for example systems reengineering or may indicate an issue that will only be accomplished through long term and consistent action for example culture change. 

The importance of viewing the organization in terms of strategic lens as outlined by Preedy, Glatter & Wise, (2003) is because strategic planning lenses “emphasizes the potential variety and diversity which exists in the organization and which can potentially generate novelty in the company” (p.141). Using the strategic lens the management can plan from top but as emergent from within and around the organization as people cope with an uncertain and changing environment in their day to day activities. Strategic lens helps in deliberate positioning through rational analytic structured and directive processes (Preedy, Glatter & Wise, 2003). The strategic lens is basically rooted in evidence of how strategies develop incrementally based on the plans of the organization.

Preedy, Glatter & Wise (2003) further outlined that strategic planning lens can provide a structured means of analysis and thinking about complex strategic problems. They further said that it encourages a longer term view of strategy than might otherwise occur. According to (Preedy, Glatter & Wise, 2003) it can be used as a means of control by regularly reviewing performance and progress against objectives or previously agreed strategic direction. Strategic planning lens may also help to communicate intended strategy, and can be used as a way of involving people in strategy development.

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In line with organizations strategic planning, the strategic planning lens works hand in hand with the experience, design and ideas lens. The three other types of lens play a vital role in strategic planning of the organization. Preedy, Glatter & Wise (2003) suggested that the experience lens determines that the strategy actually develops on the basis of more informal sensing of the environment on the basis of peoples experience. The planning is seen as directing the development of strategy. The ideas lens according to Preedy, Glatter & Wise (2003) emphasizes that the emergence of strategy from within the organization rather than from the top. Planning may be therefore being seen here as making logic because of the emerging strategies.

Tensions within organizations should be addressed through synthesizing human capacity building with strategic and technical issues into a new learning system. According to Poole, & Van de Ven (2004) there are four types of tensions which can exist within an organization. These lenses include: negative focus versus positive focus, continuous versus episodic, proactive versus reactive and then open versus closed tensions. Negative versus positive tensions most of the approaches take one side focusing on the negative side or problems within the organization. The negative versus positive tensions focus on external environments of the organization only. According to Van de Ven (2004) appreciative inquiry and some large scale interventions emphasize the importance of identifying and leveraging the positive aspects of the organization (p.99). They continue to say that in most learning organizations approaches of both positive and negative events are incorporated into the change process under the overarching framework of organizational learning.

In continuous versus episodic tensions selection in form of denial has been prevalent. Poole & Van de Ven (2004) stated that episodic processes of planned change advocate stages of change and transformational episodes ignoring the links between continuous change and change episodes. Organizations should make episodic changes part of a continuous state. The effects of episodic changes are reduced and folded into continuous renewal and ongoing experimentation (Poole, & Van de Ven, 2004).

Open versus closed tension approach within organizations have always favored one duality. Poole, & Van de Ven, 2004 suggested that most approaches have leaned towards open tension which encompasses participatory and employee involvement models of change. An example of such an open system is where organizations favor technologies and methods rooted in open systems thus they make efforts in privileging openness and in managing tensions through selecting one side of the polar opposite. Openness within organizations was allocated to topical categories for example aligning innovation and design with closed systems and implementation processes with employee participation (Poole, & Van de Ven, 2004).

According to Poole, & Van de Ven, (2004) solving the problem associated with tensions within an organization presents a major challenge to the management of most firms. They thus said learning organizations have the potential to manage tensions in a creative manner through transcending opposites, reframing situations and integrating dualities. They also said that synthesis embraces a resolution model for managing tensions in which scholars mitigate rather than enhance complexity (Poole, & Van de Ven, 2004).

Poole, & Van de Ven, (2004) thus said planned change has been evolving in a way that enables more and more complex and effective methods of managing tensions. Another way of solving tensions within organizations is called connection. A connection approach according to Poole, & Van de Ven, (2004) seeks ways to embrace, to draw energy from and to give equal voices to all people within the organization. Connection as a way of managing tension rejects overly technological change in favor of indeterminacy. They further said that managing tensions within organizations is an inherent and a core element of organizational change and can serve as one of the most essential criteria for evaluating approaches to planned change.

Episodic tension can be countered using business reengineering by focusing heavily on the organizations technical system and relying mostly on closed top down processes. Poole, & Van de Ven, (2004) commented that organizations should be equipped to cope with fragmentation and high ambiguity. The company should   come up with innovative and effective ways to manage the push and the pull of competing forces in planned change. They also outlined that an alternative to the connection approach of solving tension is a contingency perspective, a type of separation which suggests that different approaches to planned change are effective in different situations (Poole, & Van de Ven, 2004).

Pieters & Young (1999) suggested that it is important to maintain a positive tension within an organization. They also commented that a living vision is always being moved forward and into the future hence approaching too closely to a vision reduces the positive tension between what is and what is desired. The nature of the living vision is that it does continue to move and continues to exert a pull based on the tension of now versus the future (Pieters & Young, 1999). Others studies suggest that efficiency within an organization, control and motivation are the most persistent problems in the fuelling of tension between organizations and individuals. It is therefore important that authorities in these organizations create an environment in which people accept change slowly in order to reduce the occurrence of tension. Using the open system approach the boundaries between individuals and organizations and organizations and environment should be reduced to ease the process of solving the problems associated with tension (Pieters & Young, 1999).

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