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Various observers and researchers have established that vaccine therapy can only give satisfactory outcomes of up to 80%. There are many causative factors of vaccine failure. The causes of failure in vaccine efficiency can be classified into groups as discussed below.

First of vaccines can fail as a result of infective fociís persistence and or unsatisfactory antigens. For a vaccine to succeed, studies reveal that it heavily depends on the isolation of infective organisms in the concerned patient.† Commonly failures have occurred due to unsatisfactory specimens being engaged which hampers the isolation of necessary pathogenic organisms hence making the production of an appropriate antigen impossible. Where cases of chronic infections are projected, the specimens have to be examined exhaustively from all the potential sources of contagion in the patient. To this effect, it is insufficient to make assumption that origin of infection is cases of this kind must be restricted to the state in which the patient specifically complains. To find such evidence, one must use the appropriate methods, preferably the pathogenic-selective method.† Neglecting this process may immensely affect the results of immunization as it may result to overlooking of some endocrine, haemopoietic, or metabolic defect, factors upon which if corrected, heavily determines the ability of a case to recover or to respond to particular immunization.† Good illustration to this is where leucocytosis is found; indicating that unsuspected focus of infection could be present which needs exceptional surgical treatment.

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Secondly, vaccines fail to work due to their defective selection. As looked at above in patients, infective conditions of chronic, sub-acute, or acute nature may be present. Additionally these patients may have very different conditions of physiological efficiency. Through proper scientific prescription of vaccine therapy, it is achievable to differentiate the conditions and settle on the most suitable treatment of each case failure of which they may be defectively selected hence not working. To avoid failure, however, there is a great need of trying to find out the right type of vaccine.† There are many types of vaccines that can be used for a substantial range. However none of these vaccines has a special application to any specific infection or disease but can only be used in definite places to generally treat an infective condition (Rappaport, 2006).††

Faulty dosage and dose interval have also been largely blamed as one of the key factors downplaying the effectiveness of vaccines. Other than regular prophylactic treatment, it is illogical for fixing of vaccine administrationís dosage standards. This is as a result of patients not only suffering from varying infections ranging from generalized to local but also their due to their widely varying personal susceptibility to stimulation from bacteria.† Consequently, each of these variations requires special dose graduation to cater for the individual needs.† There is need of standardized dosage, just like it is today but there are some cases where some people are reactive or get disturbed by certain amounts of doses, for effective immunization in such cases, the amounts need to be reduced. This can not hamper the immunization as several studies show that the outcome will be similar to those who receive relatively larger amounts quantities of the same vaccine.

For those patients who may find the normal prophylactic doses inadequate, they have to be given a relatively larger quantity. Adjustment have also o be made to suit the personal body status of a patient to avoid failure (Rappaport, 2006).† Nevertheless, an a bit longer interval is the most preferred as compared to very rapid receptions. It is recommended that in acute infections, the patients have to be administered with adequately large doses of vaccine early enough.† This because this point they have a good leucocytic response and they are normally yet to become sensitized in comparison with the chronic infection. This is not the case in sub-acute conditions though as the infection would have stayed for longer.

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Another major cause of failure in vaccines is insufficient/inadequate duration of treatment. This has been a major problem especially in chronic infections. When infection has stayed for a number of months or years and the infective pathological processes are normally already established. However how careful the vaccines are prepared and arranged, they can not seize this infective process if they are administered in small quantities.† For good results, there must be persistence and treatment exercised in a careful manner.† Vaccine therapy is nonetheless not as easy and simple as it may look as it needs much thought and patience to be successfully implemented. In most cases, those in charge fail to practice proper administration making the whole process to collapse. For instance, many cases will do well after administration of single course 10-12 inoculations but most incidences of chronic infection like the rheumatic group call for many more inoculations therefore making it necessary for a continued systematic treatment (vaccination) lasting for at least one year.

When vaccines are given to people whose immune systems are compromised, they can easily become immunosuppressive. Examples of these patients are those with AIDS that has been found to be very immune suppressive. This hampers the immunization process and leads to complications other than bringing about prevention/treatment.

Some vaccines get contaminated with superfluous bacteria or viruses during their manufacturing process. As a result, the faulty ones can sometimes fail to be detected at get in the hands of patients. They end up failing to a very large extend, in some cases ending up as major sources of harm to patients. There are so many incidences that have been reported where several people have reacted with vaccines (Rappaport, 2006).

To sum up the discussion, vaccines have helped eradicate most disease like poliomyelitis and measles. It would be very difficult to prevent many incidences of deaths had vaccines not discovered. Even though immunizations has helped, they have also failed to a great extent as vaccines are not always very effective in preventing the diseases that they are supposed to protect against (Rappaport, 2006). The factors that lead to their failure include: sometimes they are normally contaminated during manufacture, they may react with individualís bodies leading to other complications, insufficient treatment, infective fociís persistence and or unsatisfactory antigen, their defective selection, faulty dosage and dose interval and insufficient/inadequate duration of treatment.

It is discouraging to hear of many health problems that arise after vaccination. Before leaving for Gulf War I many soldiers were given defective anthrax vaccine. As a result, they experienced a lot of health problems. Although the reports were immediately rubbished, it was very apparent after the termination of operations in Iraq that the soldiers went through difficult health problems.

Many authors have reported disturbing information on how harmful vaccines are raising so many questions as to whether vaccines are useless or still needed. For example it is believed that a combination of death rates resulting from diphtheria, measles, scarlet fever and whooping cough in children of up to 15 declined to almost 90% in a period ranging from 1860 to 1965 happened before the introduction of widespread immunization and antibiotics. This is a good indication that higher host-resistance is not only due to vaccination but some other factors that include improved housing and good nutrition.

The manner in which in which vaccines act and the possible side effects is not understood. Although many people think that they are effective, it is so alarming how they affect the body in a different way than giving them the valid immunity they are supposed to. The diseases they are meant to prevent have persisted to break out even in areas where immunization has been carried out on a large scale. A recent case was in Britain where even children who had been fully immunized contracted whooping cough in relatively huge numbers.

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