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Water purification is a scientific process of removing impurities from contaminated water. Impurities in this case may include some chemical substances, the contamination from biological substances and residues, solids floating by water, and the contaminated gases in water. The main objective of water purification is to produce water that is suitable for a certain goal. This could range from the domestic consumption, use in hospital settings, and for the large-scale industries. Depending on the need, a water purification process can be done both in the small and large scales. The process can also involve a variety of physical methods such as the use of filters, sedimentation, and other distillation procedures. From a biological perspective, sand filters are often useful while looking from a chemical perspective, chlorination and use of ultraviolet light can be used among others (Ali & Gupta, 2007).

In this paper, the use of filters in the water purification processes is being discussed. This is done with a highlight of various types of filters such as slow sand filters, rapid sand filters and membrane filters. The paper gives a basic scientific approach and understanding to the water purification filter technology showing how it is made as well as how it works. A case of the usefulness of filters in China is a main focus of this work. This is done with a full view of the Chinese social, cultural and political environments. The main objective is to create awareness, showing the need as well as building a strong marketing strategy for this scientific process in the Chinese culture. In the concluding section, a strong recommendation and justification for this product to the Chinese society is greatly revealed. This is done with the view that besides the Chinese large and ever increasing population, an access to clean water has remained a challenge despite its growing technological advancement in other areas of science.

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Technological Development of Water Purification Filter. There are three different kinds of water filters that are commonly used in the water filtration. These include rapid sand filters, slow sand filters and membrane filters. In a rapid sand filter, water is made to move vertically through sand which has a layer of activated carbon or anthracite coal covering the surface. This top layer is created to remove some organic compounds that could be responsible for any taste in the water. Since the sand layer has relatively large spaces among the sand particles, the simple filtration alone is not sufficient. A more effective filtration of smaller suspended particles, therefore, extends to the depth of the filter (Shannon & Bahn, 2008). This technology would suit this new business opportunity considering the technological strengths of China. The utilization of this water purification technology would be suitable in purifying the salty Chinese water that has left many struggling.

The need for the continued effectiveness and efficiency in the water filtration requires that the filter is cleaned in order to get rid of impurities within the system. In this exercise, two main procedures are useful. First of all, the compressed air is blown through the filter from the bottom to the top; this process is known as air scouring. This is meant to break the compacted filter media to ease a water passage (Shannon & Bahn, 2008). In the second process, the water is passed through the filter in a bottom-top direction; a process that is referred to as back-washing or back-flashing. The water that has been used for washing the filter can either be disposed or recycled by being mixed with the raw water for the filtration. However, recycling of this water is discouraged, since it may reintroduce a higher level of concentration of impurities and bacteria into the system (Sobsey & Stauber, 2005).

Rapid sand filters have a number of advantages when compared to other filters. For instance, it has the ability to filter out smaller particles in comparison with paper filters. It also enables the liquid to flow through it faster, hence, saving time. Furthermore, it is stronger and can withstand the high pressure and serve for longer. Finally, the fact that it is washable makes it easier reuse without necessarily contaminating the water (Shannon & Bahn, 2008).

The slow sand filter is another commonly used filter technology. Unlike the rapid sand filters, slow sand filters rely on the biological treatment process rather than the physical filtration. This filter is made of different graded layers of sand, with gravel at the bottom, followed by the coarse and finest sand at the top. At the top of the filter, there is a thin biological layer called a “zoogleal” layer. At the bottom of the filter, there are also the created drains that pass the water for the further disinfection (Shannon & Bahn, 2008).

If carefully used, the slow sand filter can serve for several weeks and months, but not as long as the rapid sand filters. Unlike the washable rapid sand filters, the slow sand filters are cleaned by replacing the top sand layer. It also requires a larger space and land to operate as compared to other filters (Shannon & Bahn, 2008).

Membrane filters are another form of the water purification filter technology. They are used to filter both drinking and sewage waters. Although membrane filters have the capacity to remove all particles larger than 0.2 um, it is only effective for a tertiary water treatment. It is, therefore, mostly recommended for the treatment of water for reuse from industries. It can also be used to treat water before discharging it to the river that is used by towns further downstream. They can also be used in beverage industries, including the bottled water. However, this process is not very suitable for the treatment of water for a direct domestic consumption (Sobsey & Stauber, 2005). Furthermore, all water filtration processes are limited in that they cannot effectively remove impurities that are dissolved into water such as phosphorus, nitrates as well as heavy metal irons (Sobsey & Stauber, 2005).

Chinese Social Cultural System. The investment in a foreign country must begin with the consideration of political, social and cultural conditions of the target investment point. Therefore, investing in water purification filters in China requires understanding not only of potential gains that can be in such investment. The cultural background of China must, thus, be understood for any viable investment in China. The beliefs, language, attitudes and demographic characteristics must, thus, be considered in the search for a new business opportunity. The acceptance and the usefulness of water purification systems in China, in one way or another, rely either directly or indirectly on the Chinese social cultural systems. Their religious beliefs, language, tradition, work ethics as well as the education system can determine the extent to which this technology will be used in China.

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China is the fourth largest territory in the world after Russia, Canada and the United States. In terms of the human population, China records the highest population of the world then followed closely by India and the United States. The state has been in existence for close to five thousand years, and, therefore, it records one of the most ancient, rich and colorful cultures and lifestyles in the world’s historical records. The Chinese territory covers an area of 9.3 square kilometers with close to 18000 kilometers coastline (Nolan, 2002).

From a religious perspective, China is the home of such world’s religions as Taoism and Confucianism that, for generations, have remained influential in the cultural way of life. Although Buddhism is not one of indigenous religions of China, it has also become very influential along with Taoism and Confucianism (Nolan, 2002).

The approach of these religions in the issues of life dictates that China would have lesser religious consciousness as compared to other people of the world. For instance, Confucianism only has a system of philosophical, cultural, educational and political ideologies. Buddhism, on the other hand, does not believe in the concept of God, while Taoism deals more with the physical and sexual discipline and well-being for the body (Nolan, 2002). From this argument, a religious set-up of China would, therefore, evolve around the three faiths as Taoism shapes the physical well being, Confucianism shapes philosophy, while Buddhism shapes spirituality.

As already indicated, the Chinese tradition and culture has been widely influenced by three dominant religions. They tend to portray a harmony between humanity, nature, philosophy as well as service. Besides these, their architectural designs show a great ability to build both simple and complex structures as revealed through their buildings and sculptural designs.

The language also forms another important aspect of culture in any world civilization. The Chinese language, therefore, forms a part of the widely used languages in the world and also one of the most ancient languages that has managed to retain its originality despite several disappearances or an erosion of other ancient languages (Beanish & Wang, 2008). The need to learn the Chinese language is, therefore, currently taking its roots across the world, making it to be one of the five officially acknowledged languages in the United Nations. This has made it easier to exchange the ideas and technologies between China and the rest of the world. Their language is also revealed to be rich for the literature, poems, songs, drama operas as well as philosophy (Beanish & Wang, 2008).

Historically, China has been inhabited by several ethnic groups. The Han Chinese is an ethnic community that has managed to survive throughout the Chinese history. The rest has disappeared without leaving behind a significant cultural impact (Nolan, 2002). However, it is also reported that even within the Chinese Hans, there are other linguistic and cultural traditions that occupy this East Asian State. Furthermore, their writing system is unique in that it is the oldest writing being still in a continuous usage. This has involved the use of symbols painted using the brush and ink. This practice has been a mother of the current Chinese calligraphy, which is also one of the most influential cultural aspects of the Chinese culture (Beanish & Wang, 2008).

The Chinese education system is also another celebrated cultural aspect. They have a complete schooling system that begins from a kindergarten to a postgraduate level. Despite its ever-growing population, the junior and senior schools are sufficient enough and well equipped to serve the big number of pupils. Furthermore, the primary education in China is very affordable, although the tuition cost becomes higher as one goes up the ladder of studies. Despite the charged fees at the higher levels of study, the rate of university enrolment is increasingly growing annually, hence, making the illiteracy level drastically reduced (Beanish & Wang, 2008).

Even in the traditional systems, education was highly valued. For instance, after the end of Song Dynasty that existed between 960- 1279 AD, the Chinese developed a system whereby education became a great need for those interested in occupying bureaucratic positions of governance. Today, both men and women are encouraging to pursue the knowledge in almost all disciplines. The tradition has also encouraged women for studies and sometimes even assigned the special teachers that could teach them essential virtues and norms (Beanish & Wang, 2008).

The Chinese work ethics is also based on their beliefs that hard work is related to the success and general respect in the community. Their workforce is, therefore, disciplined, discourages laziness and embraces professionalism as a means of success and promotion (Ralston & Holt 2008).

Chinese Socio-Cultural Acceptance of Water Purification Filter. The Chinese socio-cultural behavior, as can be seen, is very friendly to the implementation of the water filter technology. This is based on the fact that the state of China, being one of the most populated states in the world, the need for water is a great demand and any technology that improves the water supply would obviously not be rejected. Furthermore, the acceptance of this technology would provide a large market for this water purifying the machine even at domestic levels.

Even though the Chinese culture is widely influenced by religion, none of these religious beliefs are reported to be antiscientific. Instead, their religious beliefs would be used to support and propagate such scientific ideas that would improve a living standard of the population. These, therefore, imply that a religious opposition of usage of water purification filter is not expected in China.

For the large-scale water purification filter plants, the Chinese large population is likely to provide the sufficient labor. In such cases where the water can be manufactured for a domestic consumption, the large population would also provide the sufficient consumer market. Furthermore, the nature of work force and work ethics in China reveals that such a technology, if embraced, would be positively and rapidly expanded for the further development.

The language and education system of China is likely to propagate the utilization of the water filter technology. This is based on the fact that China, being a state that embraces education, science and technology, is likely to adopt such a technology and even to use its own scientific innovations to maintain and improve it. Furthermore, the Chinese women’s participation in studies would encourage them to learn and utilize the technology for their domestic small scale consumption without necessarily relying on an external technological intervention.

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