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The 1973 oil crisis

The 1973 oil crisis started in 1973 when the associates of the OAPEC (Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries) proclaimed an oil restriction. This was in reaction to the decision of U.S. to re-supply the Israel military in the course of Yom Kippur War. It lasted until March of 1974.

A strong rift was developed within NATO with the U.S. actions viewed as initiating the oil embargo and the rising possibility of high oil prices, disrupted supply and recession (Merrill,, 2007). The Nixon administration started parallel negotiation with both Arab oil producers to end the embargo, and with Egypt, Syria and Israel to arrange an Israeli retreat from the Sinai and the Golan Heights after the war ceased as a means of addressing these developments. The pledge of a negotiated settlement between Syria and Israel was adequate to convince Arab oil producers to lift the embargo in March 1974.

This crisis was great of significance to U.S. and the entire world since it helped to cool down wars that were taking place during that tine. It also facilitated rapid economic development in U.S. and across the world.

1979 energy crisis

In 1979, a crisis emerged in the United States in the course of the wake of the Iranian Revolution. In early 1979, the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi fled his country permitting Ayatollah Khomeini to gain control in the middle of massive protests. The Iranian oil sector was shuttered by the protests.  

The new regime was inconsistent and at a lower volume forcing prices to shoot up while the new regime resumed oil exports. Under the presidency of Dr. Mana Alotaiba Saudi Arabia and other OPEC countries increased production to counterbalance the decline, and the overall loss in production was about 4%. Nevertheless, a widespread panic led to driving prices far higher compared to what would be expected under normal conditions.

The 1979 oil crisis was of great significance in U.S. and the entire world since it helped a lot in maintain stability in American and world economy at large. It led to reduction of oil prices and increased supply rate.   

The New York City Blackout of 1977

The New York City Blackout of 1977 was an electricity blackout had effect on most of the New York City since 13th July, 1977 to 14th July 1977.  Regions in the Southern Queens and neighborhoods in the Rockaways which are section of Long Island Lightning Company System were the only neighborhoods in the New York City that were not affected by the blackout. The 1977 blackout was localized to New York City and the immediate surrounding unlike other blackouts that affected the region.

The events resulting to the blackout started at 8:37 p.m. on 13th July, 1977 with a lightning strike at Buchanan South, a substation on the Hudson River, tripping two circuit breakers in Westchester County. The 345,000 volts of electricity from Indian Point were converted by the Buchanan South substation to lower voltage of commercial use. A loose locking nut mixed with a delayed upgrade cycle made sure that the breaker was unable to reclose and permit power to flow again hence leading to blackout.

Global Government Events (related to American government)

The Watergate Scandal

The Watergate scandal was a political outrage during the 1970s in the U.S. originating from the break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. ultimately, the effect of the scandal resulted to the resignation of the Richard Nixon, the President of the U.S. It also led to the indictment, trial, conviction and imprisonment of several Nixon administration officials.

The affair started with the arrest of five men for breaking and entering into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate complex on 17th June, 1972. The payment of the burglars was connected by FBI to a slush fund used by the 1972 committee to re-elect the president. It was revealed by evidence mounted against the president’s staff that President Nixon had tape recording systems in his offices and that he had recorded numerous conversations. Nixon was therefore implicated by the recording revealing that he had tried to cover up the break-in.

This event was significant to U.S. since it enabled it to know what the government was doing unlawful and how it hindered developments. The event also enabled other countries to have a close supervision of their respective government officials.  

The U.S presidential election of 1972

The U.S presidential election of 1972 was the 48th quadrennial United States presidential election. It was held on 7th, November, 1972. Finally, Senator George McGovern, who ran an anti-war campaign against sitting Republican President Richard Nixon, won the Democratic Party’s nomination though he was handicapped by his outsider status and the scandal and subsequent firing of Thomas Eagleton.

Nixon won the election in a massive landslide due to his emphasis on a good economy and his success in foreign affairs. He had a 23.2% point margin of victory in the well-known vote, the fourth largest in the history of presidential elections.   

Election of Nixon as a president was of great significance to U.S. and the whole world. This is because he united many countries economically and politically. He facilitated rapid economic development in U.S. and ended wars that had seen many people lose life across the world, despite his failure later on.

Iran Hostage crisis

The Iran hostage crisis was a political crisis between Iran and U.S. 52 United States’ citizens were held hostage for 444 days since 4th November, 1979 to 20th January, 1981, after a group of Islamic students and militants took over the embassy of U.S. in support of the Iranian revolution.

When the Iranian militants seized the U.S. Embassy in Tehran on 4th November, 1979, 66 Americans were arrested including three who were at the Iranian Foreign Ministry. Six more Americans escaped and 13 of the 66 who were taken hostage were released on 19th and 20th November 1979 while one was released on 1th July 1980. The remaining 52 were released on 2oth January 1981 at the very moment that Ronald Reagan had accomplished his inaugural address after having been sworn in as the President of the U.S. to replace jimmy carter.

This crisis was of great significance since it enhanced peace in U.S and the entire world and also led to election of new President in the United States who later facilitated peace and economic development in U.S. and across the world.

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Global SOCIAL ISSUE events

The U.S. Bicentennial

The U.S. Bicentennial was a sequence of celebrations and observances during the mid-1970s that paid compliment to the historical events resulting to the development of the U.S. as a sovereign republic. The bicentennial ended on Sunday, 4th June, 1976, with the 200th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence.

The U.S. Department of the Treasury declared in October 1973 that it will issue currency with special design as a section of the Bicentennial celebrations. The official Bicentennial events started on 1st April 1975, when the American Freedom Train launched in Washington, Delaware to begin its 21-month, 25,388-mile tour of the 48 neighboring states. On 18th April 1975, President Gerald Ford came to Boston to light a 3rd lantern at the historic Old North Church, representing America’s 3rd century.

This event was of great significance to the U.S. and the entire world since it showed the need to independence, peace and loving one another and countries at large.

Earth Day

Earth Day refers to a day that is aimed at inspiring awareness and appreciation for the natural environment of the earth. John McConnell was the pioneer of the name and concept of Earth Day in 1969 at a UNESCO conference in San Francisco. The first announcement of Earth Day was by San Francisco, Saint Francis’ City- patron saint of ecology.

Earth Day was observed initially n San Francisco and other cities on 21st March, 1970, the first day of spring. This day of nature’s equipoise was authorized later in a declaration signed by Secretary General U Thant at the UN where it is observed annually. A separate Earth Day was founded about the same day by U.S. Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in first held on 22nd April, 1970.  

Earth Day is of great significance not only to the United States but also to the whole world since it helps in preserving our environment and making it healthy for human occupation. It enables all people across the world to take care of the environment by keeping it clean and green.            

Operation sail

Operation sail refers to a series of sailing activities held to celebrate special occasions and features sailing vessels from all over the world. Operation Sail, Inc., a non-profit organization established in 1961 by President John Kennedy coordinated every event and ought to be approved by the U.S. congress.

Usually known as OpSail or Op Sail, the event has the objective of promoting good will and cooperation among nations while offering sail training and celebrating history of maritime. Sometimes, it is also referred to incorrectly as Tall Ships. When scheduled, OpSail events are run concomitantly with the yearly International Naval Review, which features modern warships from various navies.

This event of great significance since it helps a lot in improving good will and cooperation among many different countries across the world. Hence, the event facilitate and encourage peace across the world.

Global NATURAL DISASTER events

The 1976 Guatemala earthquake

The 1976 Guatemala earthquake struck on 4th February 1976, at 03:01:43 local time- 09:01:43 UTC. It was a 7.5 Mw earthquake, centered in the Motagua Fault, approximately 160 Km near the city of Los Amates in the section of Izabal.

Cities across the country suffered damage, and most adobe houses in the remote regions of Guatemala City were destroyed completely. The earthquake struck during the early morning when the majority of people were sleeping. This contributed to the high death rate of 23,000 people, about 76,000 were injured and many thousands left with no homes. Some regions encountered blackout and without communications for days. The major shock was followed by thousands of reverberations, some of the larger ones resulting to extra damages and loss of life.

Even though this event was disastrous and left many people dead and others homeless, it was of little significance in that at alert the country about the need of installing emergency machines and tools and means of handling such events.

The Bangladesh famine of 1974

The Bangladesh famine of 1974 refers to an era of mass starvation starting in March 1974 and ending in about December of the same year. The famine is viewed to be the worst in recent years; it was characterized by enormous flooding along the Brahmaputra River as well as high mortality.

Warning of famine started in March 1974 when the price of rice rose steadily. Widespread starvation begun within this month in Rangpur district, the area which would become one of the most afflicted.  It had only been 25 months since the war for Bangladesh independence- 1971, and the formal development of the country. New state, devastated infrastructures and markets of Bangladesh were wholly unprepared to deal with the situation in many ways.  

However, this event was of little significance to Bangladesh as a country and rest of the world because it only taught them about the need of food production and preservation and increased need of being ready to deal with such events.   

The 1970 Bhola cyclone

The 1970 Bhola cyclone was a destructive tropical cyclone that struck East Pakistan- Bangladesh currently- and West Bengal of India on 12th November 1970. It was the deadliest cyclone ever recorded, and one of the deadliest natural disasters in current times. Up to 500,000 people died in the storm, mainly due to the storm surge that flooded much of the low-lying islands of Ganges Delta. The cyclone was the 6th cyclonic storm of the 1970 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, and strongest of the season, reaching strength equal to a Category 5 hurricane.

The cyclone formed over the central Bay of Bengal on 8th December and travelled north, strengthening as it did so. It attained its pick with winds of 185Km/h on 12th November and made landfall on the coast of East Pakistan that night. Over 45% of the population of 167,000 was killed by the storm.

Nevertheless, this event was of little significance to Bangladesh as a country and rest of the world because it only taught them about the need of food production and preservation and increased need of being ready to deal with such events.

Code: Sample20

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