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Introduction to ADHD Essay Example

The symptoms may be classified in two categories: symptoms of impulsiveness and hyperactivity and the other category are the symptoms of inattentiveness. Disruptive behavior is normally common with a male child than in females at childhood and since it is a used to diagnose ADHD, it makes it easier to diagnose the male child. Young girls usually have the inattentive form and it is but simple to diagnose them in childhood.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

The main symptoms of inattentiveness in children and teenagers include poor concentration, short attention span, difficulty in organizing tasks and carrying out instructions, forgetfulness, inability to stick to tedious roles and making careless mistakes in normal duties. Symptoms of hyperactivity include tendency to talk a lot, excess movements, inability to settle to tasks and being uncomfortable in calm conditions and frequently fidgeting. Symptoms of impulsiveness include a limited sense of danger, disobedience to laid down regulations, constant interruption during talks and impatience that sometimes leads to actions before thinking.

ADHD is known to have negative impacts on children’s lives and leads to poor academic performance, poor peer interaction and indiscipline. Children with ADHD develop other condition that leads to negative effects. These effects include conduct disorders that are normally exhibited through fights, vandalism and anti-social behavior. Anxiety disorder leads to nervousness and sometimes the child may experience physical signs like sweating, increased heartbeat or dizziness (Millichap, 2010).

ADHD is also known to cause sleeping problems in children despite the fact that they may be hyperactive. Depression is also a possible symptom to children with ADHD. It is good to note that ADHD has no effect on intelligence but it causes learning difficulties in children. ADHD is difficult to diagnose in adults but some of the known symptoms are poor organization skills, forgetfulness, restlessness, extreme impatience, short temper, mood swings, carelessness and poor attention to details.

Difference between Intellectual Disabilities and Specific Learning Disabilities

Intellectual disability is also known as mental retardation and is used to refer to people who prone to limitations when it comes to learn and practice day to day tasks. It varies from minor to severe implications during the children’s development. It is difficult for most children who suffer from intellectual disability to care on their own and to express their needs. The disability causes slow development to the children relative to their age mates, for example, they learn to speak slowly, dress and could have difficulties in attending school learning. The problem usually develops before adulthood. It can be caused by poor development before birth, injury, a brain defect or diseases. The most known causes of intellectual disability include fetal alcohol problem, the Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, defects during birth, infections before birth and to good extent genetic factors (Roy, Roy& Clarke, 2006).

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Learning disabilities are disorders which are mostly exhibited by difficulties in talking, listening, reasoning, reading, writing and poor ability to compute mathematics. The disorders are believed to be as a result of dysfunction of the Central Nervous System. Sometimes a learning disability can be as a result from a situation of physical disability, for example, mental retardation, sensory impairment or even environmental factors but they do not necessarily the directives for learning disabilities.

It is diagnosed by professionals like neuropsychologists, institutions and clinical psychologists by performing an intelligent test usually involving classroom tests, aptitude tests as well as social interaction behavior performance. Alternative methods include cognition, memory, alertness and ability to master languages. The performance of the child is used to compare with her or his cognitive performance. If his or her cognitive ability is higher than academic ability, the child is presumed to have a learning disability.

Educational Implications of the Views of Intelligence Advanced by Cattell, Sternberg and Gardner

British psychologist Raymond Cattel defined intelligence in two broad categories: fluid and crystallized intelligence. He described fluid intelligence as that which allows people to perceive new knowledge without depending on past experiences. It concentrates on the ability to reason and think abstractly and come up with solutions to problems. This ability is independent of prior education or knowledge and calls for one to judge situations and problems and act independently without using relevant reference materials. On the other hand, crystallized intelligence is the form of knowledge that originates from past experiences or learning. It concentrates on facts and experiences. Both intelligences are important in education in that one needs fluid intelligence to come up with strategies of solving problems and also require the crystallized intelligence to remember laid down theories and formulas.

Howard Gardner, a Harvard psychologist, suggested the theory regarding multiple intelligences. He believed that people have various kinds of intelligences, for example, linguistic, musical, verbal and naturalistic intelligences. When someone might be specifically strong in an area an individual is likely to possess other abilities (Sternberg, 2009). His theory has been a subject of debate especially to teachers and his fellow psychologists. Apart from his research lacking empirical data support, they argue that his view of intelligence is very wide and his definition of the eight intelligences only represents individual talents and personal abilities. Many educators use this theory to maximize intelligences of their students in their teaching.

Sternberg classifies intelligence into three classes, analytic, creative as well as practical intelligences. Analytic intelligence involves the processes people use to analyze information. Creative intelligence refers to how different people handle new tasks from their first reaction to how learn and practice. Practical intelligence describes how a person adapts and shapes to an environment. Sternberg explains that no tests on intelligence can adequately explain the cultural differences in education. He also agrees that one can be able to perfect any of the three intelligences and this theory is used by teachers to maximize on the abilities and talents of the students.

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