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Negative feedback enables a person in a cold weather not to freeze. It helps the body maintain a temperature set point of 37 degrees Centigrade. Tissues or organs that are involved in this process include skin, nervous system and the brain. The stimulus that triggers a homeostatic response during a cold winter is the cold or low temperature. Temperature sensory receptors cells help the body detect the stimulus. They are located in the skin, and they detect the cold temperature in the external environment. The receptors pass on this information to the hypothalamus located in the brain. In order to control the body temperature, the three primary structures must work together. The sensory organ, which is the skin, acts as a receptor, it receives information about the cold temperature. It sends this information to the hypothalamus in the brain. The brain and the spinal cord act as the integrator of this information. The brain integrates this message and initiates actions through effectors such as the skin muscle or a gland. The effectors respond by preventing heat loss or generating it. For example, the muscles twitch, and the body shivers to generate some heat.

Homeostasis Regulation of Osmolality

In steady state, body salt and water content remains constant. A decrease or an increase in salt and water intake is balanced through an equal change in renal salt and water excretion. Homeostasis is attained through glomerular filtration process that produces an ultra-filtrate. The ultra-filtrate is then processed in the kidney tubules so that the final solute and urine excretion meet the homeostatic needs of the body. Ingestion of meal with high salt increases the value of sodium in the blood. As the concentration increases, more water from the body cells enters the blood vessels, thus increasing blood pressure.

When osmolality of the body fluids increases above normal due to high concentration of electrolyte, pituitary gland releases more anti-diuretic hormone that increases the water permeability in collecting ducts and distal tubules in the kidney. When there is excess water, and the ECF osmolality is low, the secretion of ADH by the posterior pituitary gland becomes reduced. This lowers the permeability of distal and collecting tubules. The kidney controls water excreted while the thirst mechanism controls the oral intake of water. These two effectors are part of the negative feedback loops that begin with the hypothalamus. An increase in osmolality stimulates osmoreceptors to release AVP, which triggers thirst in order to increase water intake. As a result, the two complementary feedback loops stabilize osmolality and thus the sodium ions from the salt.

Code: Sample20

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