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There are six imperatives for intercultural communication. The first is the peace imperative. It seeks to ask the question whether different individuals from all over the world can live peacefully together without looking at their gender, ethnicity, race, and language or religious differences. The second is the economic imperative. It involves competing effectively in the global market without domination of certain nations or countries. The technological imperative involves globalization. Technological imperative has enhanced the disappearance of world's territories to make the world a global village. Demographic imperative is the features of a given population. Self-awareness imperative is, perhaps, the most critical imperative. This is because if people were to be aware of their own cultures, teach it to other people and remain open to learning other people’s culture, then the world will not be full of cultural judgments. Lastly, there is the ethical imperative. Each culture has its own wrongs and rights. This imperative involves living with these differences and acknowledging that these differences exist.

While these imperatives exist, their integration into people’s daily life often fails. There have been situations of highly contentious and politicized use of culture in the moral and legal controversies surrounding the globalization, immigration and assimilation. In many parts of the world, indigenous people have always struggled for centuries to maintain their way of life and identity. They do this against the tides of increasing globalization and foreign investment in their countries. This is often followed by contentious and politicized use of culture in the moral and legal controversies. For example, there were numerous attempts by the United States government to assimilate or transform the Native America culture into European- American culture between the years 1790 and 1920. This can be identified as a politicized issue that aimed at transforming the Native American culture into what the government thought was a more superior culture.

There has also been contentious and politicized use of culture in trying to suppress certain religion in America. The United States government worked tirelessly to convert the American Indians to Christianity. According to the officials, they believed that the virtue of Christianity was more ideal. Through the technological imperative, there is now the possibility and the likelihood of the development of a global culture. The fax machines, the Internet, cable television sets and satellites have enhanced the sweeping away certain cultures. This has been followed by government across the world campaigning for the eradication of certain cultures. Global entertainment companies have shaped the dreams and perceptions of ordinary citizens. This spread of cultural values, cultural beliefs, and norms only seem to endorse western ideals of capitalism. The result of this globalization is that local cultures unavoidably fall victim of this global consumer culture. Although globalization promotes trade and material prosperity among nations, it comes with a high cultural and spiritual cost.

Immigration is a situation in which people move from their original homeland and settles on a new land or foreign countries. While immigration is fueled by various factors such as political upheavals, globalization has led to disappearing of certain cultures. This is in opposite to what is expected of immigration. Understanding the issues of immigration and the type of politics involved is critical. Recent legislation and political happenings surrounding the United States immigration often portray cultural assimilation and suppression. Although these issues travel back to the historical ages in the United States, there has been questions, which intercultural imperatives to observe and which ones not to observe. Sweeping legislation similar to those of Arizona has been passed in other states. These Legislations can be identified as politicized laws that are aiming at undermining certain intercultural imperatives. They have been passed in the pretense of enhancing security measures in the United States, which has led to border restriction.

Construction of Beliefs, Norms, Values And Social Behavior In The Society

The social construction applies to various norms, values and beliefs that are usually constructed by the dominant economic and the most influential institution in the society. These values and beliefs are reinforced and perpetuated by social institutions such as media, education, workplace, religion and the government, among others. These norms and values determine the upward mobility, as well as in shaping of individuals personality, identity and gender roles. Norms and gender roles are usually the result of the socialization process founded on the dominant norms, values and beliefs of the society. From birth, an infant of both sexes are socialized by the parent and other adults in the society to think, behave, interact and act in a particular gender specific role manifestation.

There are various illustrations of different attributes and traits that females and males are socialized to adopt in the society. For instance, females are usually conditioned to be compassionate, cooperative, nurturing, caring in preparation of future roles as a mother and wife. In contrast, males are usually oriented toward competition, assertiveness, achievement and independence. In addition, males are usually expected by the society to suppress their feelings and emotions. Construction of beliefs, norms and values normally takes place through interaction with various agents of socialization, such as peer groups and families, as well as formal and informal institutions.

Social groups, such as families and peer groups, provide the first experience of socialization. Parents and the members of extended family socialize the children to adopt the beliefs, values and expectations of the family. For instance, a child learns to use objects such as books, bikes and computers and how to relate with others in the family. However, the race, religion, societal factor and social class influence the construction of beliefs and values among individuals in the society. For instance, rich family socializes their children towards creativity and judgment. In contrast, poor families emphasizes on conformity and obedience when raising their children.

Formal institutions, such as school, government, media and workplace, play a crucial role in construction of beliefs and norms. In America, children spend approximately 7 hours a day at home and 180 days in school. School plays a latent role in the society by socializing children to work as a team, use a textbook, and follow schedules. These values are reinforced through rewards. For example, when a child takes part in a contest and becomes rewarded in school, the child learns that there is usually a loser and a winner in the society. Furthermore, working together makes children learn to cooperate and work as a team.

An American adult spends a considerable amount of time to the places of employments. Workplace nurtures the values and beliefs of a person, both in terms of non-material culture and material culture. For instance, workplace helps an individual to gain teamwork values through involvement in a participative project. Furthermore, workplace inculcates values such as transparency, hardworking, competency, honesty, mutual respect and courtesy, as well as timeliness. These values are reinforced through promotions and rewards.

Religion provides a vital avenue for construction of values, beliefs and norms. Church, temples, mosque and other religious avenues where people gather for worship teach the participant the ways to interact with the material culture of the religion. Most religions uphold the gender norms, values and beliefs and play a vital role in the enforcement process. Religion fosters the development of shared sets of values and norms that are usually learned in the society.

Government is also a key agent in construction and enforcement of beliefs, norms and values. Although the role of government in constructivism is usually unrecognized, the rites of passage that are based on age are usually established by the government. Definition of an adult and an aged is usually dictated by the government. Attainment of 18 years means that an individual is an adult and can become legally self-accountable. Every time people enter these categories, they are usually required to take on new responsibilities. For instance, seniors learn to cope with social security benefits and Medicare.

Mass media influence the individual’s beliefs, values and personality. In America, an average person usually spends minimum 4 hours a day on the television. The media influence the social norms through the material culture that is broadcast. Some information disseminated through the media may be educative and essential in personality development. For instance, in channel eleven, there is a program called “Blue’s Clues”. Through this program, a child can learn how to sing and discover clues. However, some problems instigated bad norms and values to the children. For instance, on channel eleven, a program called “Jerry Springer” uses a lot of vulgar language hence, may instill a negative personality. Therefore, both formal and informal institutions play a vital role in construction of values, norms and beliefs. Workplaces, schools, government and the media reinforce and communicate the values and norms.

Code: Sample20

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