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Community health includes health care of elderly people. The programs of organizations for elders are aimed at the maintenance of health care for elder people and creation of the most comfortable conditions for receiving health care services. The target is to open accessibility for elders to get necessary qualified medical aid, to have possibility to pay more attention to their health, to go in for sports, and to take active part in a social life. It is known that health is influenced not only by the conditions of health care service but also by a set of factors, such as environment, habitation, well-being, self-realization and emotional state.  The ultimate goal is to decrease morbidity level and to increase expectancy and quality of life.

One of the most quickly growing sections of medical industry is home health care. There are a lot of reasons for it, but the most important is that the home-based medicare is more humane and compassionate one, if compared with any other form of care. More possibilities appeared due to the occurance of such kind of health care. A lot of hospitals address to home health care more often.

Home care includes “services and tools in theplace of house of individuals and families that need such services and tools as a result of severe illness, long-term health conditions, lastingphysical deformations and incurable diseases. The mentioned reasons coupled with, seeing other patients die and age differences between patients brings about varied lifestyles; those under 65 years old will not coup well with the patients who are 65 years or older. Thus, it contributes to the former to opt for home care”.

The general care is based on the creation of hygene conditions and appropriate regime, balanced diet, precise fulfillment of the medical prescriptions and permanent patient’s check-ups. The number of nursing measures depends on the state of health, according to which the physician can prescribe a strict bed rest, a bed rest or a general rest. The former does not considerably restrict the patient’s motion activity. Even the patent’s full self-service does not release close relatives from the necessity to take care in home conditions. Home-based care includes the creation of the confortable atmosphere, favourable psychological climate, provision of the prescribed dieting and bed regimes.

Residential care is based on more professional care if compared with home-based care. In this case, the great attention is paid to the attitudes between the physician and the patient, with the help of the qualified personnel.

The purpose of assisted living may be viewed as twofold. It may provide housing for individuals needing a supervised living situation, in which minimal assistance is provided. Alternatively, sheltered or assisted housing may be a form of care provision itself, in which more extensive medical and personal care assistance is available. Assisted living brings into focus the sometimes conflicting priorities of the social services, housing experts, and health care providers whose emphases in residential care may vary.

People, especially senior ones, need help and support at their houses. Such a help can include recovery, physical therapy, and assistance in daily actions, such as bathing, meals or any other kind of help. The offered services include a qualified care, a personal care, a help in shopping and care of disability. Feldman (1990) states that:

Three major trends that have fostered the large-scale growth of home care services and a resulting increase in the number of home aides will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. These are (1) growth in the numbers of the elderly and, especially, the “old old,” (2) growing limitations on the family’s ability to provide informal care to family members, and (3) rapidly escalating health care costs, leading to a search for less costly alternatives to institutional care.

Free health care is a government contract which gives the medicare coverage to senior people. This medicare includes almost the half of all medical expenditures for elderly people. Such medical care includes the following services: hospitalization, doctors, nursing care, medicines and medical equipment. However, there are some points which are not covered by medicare.

Free medical care is composed of four categories. One of them includes hospitalization coverage, nursing care and home health care. Another category covers X-rays, laboratory work, some home health care, physical therapy and some preventive screening. Those who meet the requirements for home health care are given free medicare partly covering nursing care, physical therapy, some medicines and equipment, surgical corsets and invalid chairs.

There is a great variety of home based treatment. Some patients require a short-term care - several hours a day and for the definite time period. The others require a long-term care -24/7 for the rest of life.

Hospitals are the largest component of health care services in Australia. Hospitalization is the most expensive and important component of the industry of public health services of the country. However, there are appreciable shifts towards the other establishments, mainly points of first aid, houses for elderly people and home-based medicare. Out-patient services slowly, but confidently replace hospitalization, and home based services replace a stay in geriatric homes.

Home-based treatment is basically made at the expense of the nursing organizations and usually prescribed by doctors. The private sector of out-patient medical aid is presented by personal doctors (experts of internal and family medicine, pediatrists), narrow specialists, for example, gastroenterologists, cardiologists, nurses and other medical personnel.

Speaking of home care, it is also necessary to say about bioethics.

Bioethics is based on representations about insufficiency of one-sided medical interpretation of corporal well-being as medical purposes. An absolute must is interdisciplinary dialogue of physicians with representatives of a wide range of humanities and dialogue with patients and community representatives.

Cultural grounds of bioethics consist of moral understanding of the inseparable bonds with nature and its preservation leading to the moral responsibility. Bioethics also covers problems of holistic character, including a wide spectrum of social problems.

Therefore, one of the bioethical aims is development of criteria and norms allowing or limiting implementation of such experiments on the human being. Such experiments can change the behavior, mentality and, finally, create the possibility to manipulate person.

The autonomy principle assumes the right of each individual to act according to own interests and representations about life, politics, health, religions, and being the owner of a body to use it at own discretion. The value of the given principle includes an observance of autonomy of others that means granting the rights to have a freedom of action. This principle in its negative form can be formulated as follows: autonomous actions should not be exposed to the supervising restrictions from the side of the other people.

Pain with which we should deal within any period of time possesses such characteristics which are always noted in any possible way. It shows that there is a malfunction in an organism and it is necessary to eliminate itin order to stop a further destruction and to include healing and restoration process according to the primary hologram. As soon as all necessary actions are meaningly made by us, and the organism through the system of feedback received signals that destruction is stopped, pain becomes unnecessary.

Pain is a set of the painful and unpleasant touches and emotional feelings connected with the true or potential damage of human physiology or a system of values. Pain is divided into somatic and vestseralny. Pain components are: touch (information), affective, vegetative, and impellent.

Another problem elder people can come across is polypharmacy. Polypharmacy is a simultaneous (quite often unreasonable) use of several, and sometimes of several tens of the prescribed drugs more often appointed by several doctors. As a rule, elderly people who are treated for several various diseases caused by age and the process of aging suffer from this phenomenon. The latest researches showed that elderly people who had the expressed manifestations of all the diseases had a considerable improvement of the general condition of health after the cancellation of all medicines.

Code: Sample20

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