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How votes are translated into seats in the legislature. In the United States the hypothetical two party contests for all 435 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives it is expected that one party gets the majority then it will win every seat while the party with fewer representatives gets none (Jillson, 2009). In addition Bibby & Schaffner (2007) says that two party competition and the minor parties in United States was encouraged by the Electoral College system for choosing presidents. In this context election as a president requires an absolute majority of the electoral votes. Also it is important to articulate that the states electoral votes are allocated under a winner take all arrangement. Bibby & Schaffner (2007) thus says “in the United States all that is required is to capture states electoral votes is a plurality of the vote in that state” (p. 43). To win the presidency, a presidential candidate must secure a majority of votes or 270 in the Electoral College (Medvic, 2009). The national popular vote aims to ensure that the popular vote winner captures the presidency. Like the congressional elections most state legislative elections operate under the single member plurality system. Medvic (2009) continues to say that (most states provide for the election of statewide executive branch officials beyond government. Voters will thus be asked to vote for a lieutenant governor, a state treasurer, a state auditor and a secretary of state.  

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Unlike in the United States in Russia, there is a legal threshold for representation is also found in many PR systems. Moser (2001) says that Russia uses a 5% legal threshold in the PR tier of its mixed system. These thresholds are designed to encourage party consolidation by denying smaller parties representation and therefore have effects similar to low district magnitudes (Moser, 2001). He continues to say that the 5% legal threshold designed to deter the proliferation of small parties. Moser (2001) thus says that in the transformation of votes into votes, the degree of party proliferation in the electoral realm conditioned the mechanical effect of the 5% legal threshold. In Russia studies show that under proportional representation 225 seats are elected in one nationwide district with 5% legal threshold while using plurality tier 225 seats elected by plurality in single member districts (Moser, 2001).

In conclusion, electoral systems in most advanced democracies in the world are well defined. Although some countries such as Russia use mixed electoral systems which are single member district and proportional representation the election process is well defined. Elections on the other hand are used to enable voters to choose the candidates who will vie for various political positions. The single member district in United States has worked well for the country, while in Russia the use of both systems appears convenient when there. The translation of votes into seats in the legislature depends on the laws governing the electoral systemsand also the electoral system in place.

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