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Our bodies defend themselves from invasions by pathogens. This occurs by means of self-defense by body cells. The system is built like an army, which protects its territory. The disease fighting cells act like soldiers in a battlefield. Various mechanisms take place in our systems thus helping the body fight diseases. All these mechanisms act like an army within the body. This army is made up of various soldiers and their functioning is as described.

These systems are keys in the functioning of the body. They are vital in defending the body against infections. Around 95% of these systems consist of water (Levinson, 2006). Fluid systems are the systems of the body, which consist of liquids and cells suspended in them (Pommerville, 2010). These systems include the blood system and the lymphoid system (Sherwood, 2008).   

It is a body fluid consisting of blood plasma and suspended cells (Pommerville, 2010). Two types of cells exist in the blood. These include the RBC’s as well as white blood cells. RBC’s refer to red blood cells (Levinson, 2006). They aid in transporting oxygen in the system. In addition to the cells, blood has other suspended matter. These are the platelets, which are suspended in the blood plasma. White blood cells are the important army within our bodies. They help in fighting invasive pathogens in the human body systems (Sherwood, 2008).

These are the cells, whose function is fighting of ailments in the body system. The cells, which perform this function, are the white blood cells (Levinson, 2006). They are also known as leukocytes. These cells are produced by a cell in the bone marrow. Different types of leukocytes exist in the body. Their lifespan is around 4 days in human bodies (Pommerville, 2010). In addition to fighting infectious diseases, they also fight foreign materials. Five types of leukocytes exist in the body. They differ, but their main function is fighting of diseases.

Function in defense

The five types of leukocytes present in the body function differently. Leukocytes function by triggering reactions due to the presence of pathogens (Levinson, 2006). Each type of leukocyte reacts differently from the others. This occurs since each type fights different pathogens from the others. Neutrophils are one type of leukocytes. They defend the body against bacteria and fungi (Sherwood, 2008). They are referred to as PMN. This stands for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (Pommerville, 2010).

The other type is eosinophil and helps the body in fighting parasitic infections. Basophils are another type of leukocytes. They help the body in fighting against allergies. They do this by releasing histamine (Pommerville, 2010). This in turn causes vasolidation and thus helps in fighting infections. Monocytes work in the same way as neutrophils. They help in cleaning the body and thus eliminating diseases (Levinson, 2006). They have a longer lifespan than neutrophils.  They are mostly found in the lymphatic system.

The Lymphatic system

This is a system in the body, which is made up of conduits. These carry a clear fluid, which is called lymph (Levinson, 2006). The conduits are called the lymphatic vessels. The system has several functions in the immune system.  It helps in getting rid of interstitial fluid from the tissues (Sherwood, 2008). It also acts as transport agent of fatty acids from the intestines. It also moves white blood cells between the lymph nodes and the bones (Sherwood, 2008). It also moves APC’s to the lymph nodes. APC stands for antigen-presenting cells (Levinson, 2006). An example of APC is the dendritic cells,

Mucosal surface barriers

These are barriers, which help the immune system of the body. They help the immune system by preventing entry of pathogens (Pommerville, 2010). These barriers consist of surfaces lined with mucous membranes. The mucous serves to protect the surface from the effects of pathogens and thus protecting the body (Levinson, 2006). Examples of these surfaces are in the respiratory and digestive systems. The sticky mucous in the respiratory system traps foreign bodies entering through the nasal cavity (Sherwood, 2008). These are then excreted through sneezing. This effectively protects the body from harmful foreign materials.

Normal flora

These are the organisms that live in our bodies. They cause no harm to our bodies. Examples of these are bacteria, such as lactobacillus (Levinson, 2006). They help in vital functions, such as digestion. They help protect our bodies from ailments, which may occur because of malfunctions in the body systems (Pommerville, 2010). An example of such a malfunction is indigestion.

Phagocytes

These are cells that help the immune system by engulfing foreign materials. They attract these materials through chemotaxis (Levinson, 2006). They engulf them and finally ingest them. By so doing, they render foreign bodies harmless. These are part of the army within charged with protecting our bodies.

Adaptive acquired immunity

This is the immune controlled by specialized cells (Levinson, 2006). These cells play specific roles in fighting pathogens. These cells help the body recognize pathogens. In turn, the body builds immunity to fight the pathogens (Sherwood, 2008). These cells include the B cells and the T cells.

They are primarily charged with making antibodies. These antibodies attach themselves to the pathogens and destroy them (Pommerville, 2010). After the destruction, some B cells remain and have the ability to remember the pathogen incase it occurs again (Sherwood, 2008). This helps in quick response by the immunity system.

They are found in the bone marrow. After an infection, various body tissues are worn out (Pommerville, 2010). These require repair in order for the body to function normally. Stem cells are charged with this responsibility. They replenish the worn out tissues of the body (Levinson, 2006). This occurs through the creation of new cells.

They are produced in the bone marrow as well. They are non-antibody producing cells (Levinson, 2006). They receive their sensitivity in the thymus. They are the principal cells involved in the cell-mediated immunity (Pommerville, 2010).

It is an organ, which is responsible basically for immunity. It sensitizes the T cells and thus helps build immunity (Levinson, 2006). Each T cell attacks a foreign body, which it recognizes through a receptor. This helps it fight the body improving the immunity of the system (Sherwood, 2008).

Cell mediated immunity

This is a type of immunity system, in which no antibodies are involved.  Macrophages and natural killer cells are triggered into action by antigens. Cytokines are released in response to the action of antigens (Levinson, 2006). CD4 cells are a part of this immunity and provide protection against pathogens. CD is an abbreviation for cluster of differentiation (Levinson, 2006). In this immunity, pathogens are engulfed by macrophages (Pommerville, 2010). They then move them to their surface with some of their proteins. This helps the T cells to recognize these antigens and thus a response is initiated in case of any pathogen invasion in the body (Sherwood, 2008).

This is governed by the action of antibodies. These are produced by the B cells and thus humoral immunity is governed by B cells (Levinson, 2006). The process is enabled by CD4 cells. T-Helper 2 cells also help in the process. This immunity involves bodies found in the body fluids. The antibodies produced, attach themselves onto antigens (Pommerville, 2010). These antigens are found on the microbes attacking the body. These antibodies consequently destroy the microbes, onto which they attach themselves (Sherwood, 2008).

The body consists of an army within. The fluid systems of the body are core parts of the army within. Many of the disease fighting mechanisms in the body are found in these systems (Levinson, 2006). Good functioning of the fluid system is vital for good body immune. The army within protects us from unknown and unseen attackers.

Code: Sample20

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