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The fires are uncontrolled burning, which is very dangerous. Therefore, institutions that provide fire services are very important. Firstly, employees of such companies work on reducing the risk of fires. Another significant task of fire service is to bring a fire under control and prevent it.

The work provides a theoretical base of fire services and fire department rank structure. It gives an explanation of responsibilities and duties of the fire service. There are   

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frequent fires, man-made disasters, and natural disasters all over the world. They are considered as factors of the increased risk for people. Unfortunately, more than sixty thousand of people die yearly because of fire accidents. Fatal fire power carries out its unpredictable character. It can inflict heavy human losses and material damage to society.

The government maintains institutions that provide the fire services. The public fire service realizes the development and implementation of state measures concerning fire problems. Also, it provides statutory regulation in the field of fire safety. Moreover, in this field the main governmental task is to organize and carry out protection of society, settlements, and the enterprises from fires. Therefore, it is possible to understand that fire services are very important, as they save people`s lives and, to some extent, they save the planet.

 Analysis of Theoretical Base of the Fire Services

The aim and duties of a fireman were firstly stated in the Fire Services Act of Parliament in 1947 “save life, protect property from damage by fire and from fire fighting measures, render humanitarian services”.

The fire services carry out the purpose to find out the most efficient, cost-effective and technically sound ways and means of preventing fires. Furthermore, they are obliged to bring a fire under control with minimal damage in the most rational use of force and fire facilities. In turns, such points are important and can be aimed just in case of the right assessment and analysis of the fire accidents.

The fire services provide the fire safety. The fire safety means a state of the object, when possibilities of fire are prevented. However, in case of fire, the fire services take appropriate measures to eliminate the negative impact of the hazards of fire on people, buildings and property.

The main objects of the fire services are people, as it is the task number one to save the life of human. The next objects of the fire service are buildings. According to Dunn, the fires in buildings suppose to be very dangerous. It can be explained by such a factor that during fires buildings fall to the ground. Fire services are focused on such objects as cars as they are able to be blown up. Nowadays the forest fires are frequent phenomena. Therefore, they are also considered as objects of fire services.

Often fires occur in result of people imprudence. Obviously burning can be caused by rule breaking of storing flammable materials, careless handling of fire, gas, use of open flame torches, and smoking in prohibited places. Also, important reasons of fires are connected with failure of home appliance or equipment. The forest fires are mainly caused by natural phenomena such as drought,  thunderbolt. These fires are very dangerous, because it is difficult to extinguish them. The fires of such a type cover the vast territory and spread at a speed of 50 km / h. Fires can also occur by spontaneous combustion of peat. The underground fires in the forests are thick with peat soils. It is difficult to see such a fire, because peat smoulders. The temperature of smoldering reaches 500 °Ñ.

According to the standards, dangerous factors of a fire which affect people are classified as naked flame, sparks and increased environmental temperature. Specialists take to account toxic products of combustion, smoke, reduced oxygen concentration, the falling of building structures, machinery, equipment.

It is very important to understand the reasons of fire plays that give the possibility for fire services to reduce fire damage. In this regard, it is extremely important at the first stage to estimate correctly reasons of fire and explosion hazards of the process, identify possible causes of accidents, scientifically justify the choice of methods and means of fire, explosion prevention, and protection.

An important factor in the conduct of these works is the knowledge of the processes and conditions of combustion and explosion properties of substances and materials used in the process, ways and means of protection against fire and explosion. Measures for fire prevention are divided into organizational, technical, operating and maintenance measures. Organizational measures provide for the proper operation of machinery and internal transport, proper maintenance of buildings, areas, fire instruction. Technical measures mean compliance with fire safety regulations and standards during designing of buildings, in the process of establishment of electrical wires, heating, ventilation, lighting, and proper sitting of equipment. Operating activities carry out timely preventive maintenance, inspections, repairs and testing of technical equipment. Maintenance measures are considered, when smoking is banned in public and some special places. Such measures are provided, when fire services prohibit some welding and other fire works in fire-dangerous rooms.

Fire safety can be provided with a help of fire prevention measures and active fire protection. For instance, prevention of fires to some extent can be reached meeting the requirements of fire safety or creating of special conditions for blowing out. In general, fire prevention involves a complex of measures aimed to prevent fires or reduce its negative effects. Active fire protection means measures able to ensure the successful fight against the fire or explosive situation.

A system of fire safety consists of the set of capabilities, as well as measures of a legal, organizational, economic, social, scientific and technical nature. The basic elements of fire safety system are the state authorities, local governments, businesses and individuals involved in providing fire safety.

Necessary assessment of system of fire prevention, fire protection and determination of output data must be performed by appropriate ministries, departments according to the regulatory and technical documentation approved in procedures to be followed. Providing fire safety, it is necessary to be guided also by standards, construction norms, rules connected with electronic installations, norms of technological design and other regulations proceeding from their scope of application, which brings into regulation fire safety requirements. Creating explosion prevention is also regulated by norms. Organizational and technical measures must be provided to prevent them.

Consideration of Fire Department Rank Structure

In many countries, public government makes determined efforts to establish a system of the fire services. First of all, the government facilitates the creation of different departments and companies, which provide the fire services. Secondly, it invests these institutions. A significant point is that government maintenances education in the sphere of fire services. Moreover, very often public authority takes a part in the formulation of different laws, standards and acts concerning the fire services.

However, according to the Constitution of the United States to some extent public institutions of the federal government are unable to participate in law shaping at national and international levels. Therefore, such things and normative rules connected with fires and protecting and preventing fires on boards of planes and ships, even transport of hazardous materials belong to transportation. Furthermore, regulation concerning fire safety in parks and woods is under control of Forest Fire Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. A lot of the fire services dealing with protection are offered by the U.S. Department of Defense through all armed forces.

Different institutions are engaged in the investigation, which carries out the character of fire prevention and protection, and they obey federal government. For instance, the Building and Fire Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Standard and Technology that belongs to the Commerce Department deals with the fire investigations of various types. Such points as an analysis of information concerning fires, burnings, and education in the field of the fire services are carried out by the Fire Administration of the United States, which is related to the Office of Domestic Preparedness of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). In Emmitsburg located in Maryland, there are such institutions as Emergency Management Institute (EMI) and the National Fire Academy, which obey the Department of Homeland Security. According to the special community, different appropriate emergency programs are created for participants (Carter & Rausch, 2008).

In Japan, a shape of the fire services has a long history as it was firstly established in 1629. The reason of the fire services creation was connected with the dangerous fires in a country. At this moment, approximately 108 thousand of people died from fires and snowstorm.

The government of Japan actively works on development and maintenance of the fire services. Moreover, it provides people, who are engaged in this sphere, by special conditions. In 1996, Japan offered the Fire Defence Personnel Committee System that was aimed to guarantee the rights of fire workers and to protect them as they work in full of risk conditions. Furthermore, this system was carried through the Fire Defense Organization Law and the contract between state power and all Japan Prefectural and Municipal Workers` Union.

The Japanese always control the providing of such service as the fire one. During some period, it was united with the Tokyo Police Department. On June 1880, the fire service system accounted approximately three hundred of well-prepared firefighters (Bag, 1995). Moreover, the government of Japan effectively invested in new fire technologies and equipment. Some of machinery was even imported from the United States. The support of the state developed the quality of the fire services. Moreover, the staff of this kind of service also increased. Even thousands of volunteers work for fire services.

In comparison with other states, management of the fire system in the United Kingdom and main functions concerning fire services are under control of the Inspectorate and the Fire Department regulated by the Home Office (Hunt, 1974). The full name of the Inspectorate is Her Majesty's Fire Service Inspectorate. These institutions were created to take under control local fire authorities. The attention was focused on personnel formation, investigation and development, and the fire prevention. The Inspectorate reminds the tools of communication between the Home Office and local authorities.  

However, today the fire services in the United Kingdom are not considered as the national fires services. England, Northern Ireland and Wales are provided by independent 59 staffs, when each of them is under control of own chief officer. The firemaster of Scotland leads 8 fire staffs.  Nevertheless, all fire staffs are guided by fire fighting rules offered by the Fire and Rescue Service Directorate that is under control of the Deputy Prime Minister`s Office. Therefore, all people of the United Kingdom follow the universal standard of the fire regulation.

A lot of states have own institutions and organizations that regulate and maintenance the fire services.  In some countries institutions, which provide fire services, are independent from states. However, they are deeply connected with the local authorities.

The lower rank of the fire services mainly involves firefighters, crew manager, watch manager, station manager, group manager, area manager, assistant brigade manager, deputy brigade manager, and brigade manager. Every employee has the special task and duties. Nevertheless, all of them provide the fire services for society.

The firefighters are engaged in appropriate studying and trainings from 1 to 5 years. The first five years of their job experience are considered as probation of firefighters` abilities to work and follow all standards connected with the fire service activity.  They are obliged to meet physical trainings and medical examination.

The main task of the fireman is to smother a fire and save people lives. Firefighter responds to a fire alarm, operates by hoses and ladders and ensures hydrants. They obviously cooperate with other subdivisions of the fire services that provide fire suppression, fire protection, fire-fighting equipment, public education, rescue and emergency medical services for society. Moreover, they perform daily preventive works on a personal protective transport and equipment to ensure its readiness and suitability for immediate use. Firefighters also carry out the duties of inspection of fire protection in definite areas to identify and recommend correction of fire hazards.

The crew managers of the fire services have an important role as they can influence actions at the initial phase. Actually, the first steps of crew managers are vital in the process of reducing the risk of fire. Crew managers are obliged to possess proper knowledge. First of all, they must understand main environmental rules, the reasons and different kinds of pollution and its negative influence. These managers must know the legislation of environment and importance of its institutions. Crew managers are aimed to promote cooperation between the Fire and Rescue Service and employees of environment institutions. Moreover, they have to know the way to monitor pollution actions connected with a theory of source-pathway-receptor. These specialists must understand different tactics concerning spillages, the run-offs of the fires. Furthermore, crew managers are obliged to be well-informed how to work with the special equipment of environment institutions. They must analyze all possible risks. These understandings must be achieved in result of taken studying based on different cases, tabletop exercises, and practical trainings with the application of appropriate equipment.

In addition, during the dynamic risk assessment (DRA) crew managers must involve environmental hazards successfully. Taking to account DRA they also should be able to choose suitable order to measures of protection of the natural environment. Moreover, at the initial srage of fire-fighting operations, crew managers are obliged to choose the right strategy of their work and appropriate equipment required by the brigade.

The watch managers control and assess risks of environment. They focus their attention on fire-station, different schools, where trainings are handled. A significant task of watch managers is to render an account of the incident. Then he sends this report to the team that has provided fire services. This information gives an opportunity to assess situation, tactics of their brigade, and the application of appropriate equipment (Sloman, 2008). In turns, it helps to avoid previous mistakes in the future.

The station managers that provide fire services deal often with stakeholders. They manage risks of the large and the most dangerous fires and analyze them. Later these managers adopt solution, how to limit damages. They provide stakeholders and all fire brigade by proper information.

The group managers also meet with the risks and fire hazards. It is necessary for them to provide an assessment of emergency. This step leads to mitigation of different fires. Therefore, the group managers deal with threat assessment systematically.

The responsibilities of the area managers significantly differ from duties of managers mentioned above. The main tasks of such managers are management and organization of fire services. These managers must settle cooperation between subordinates as they carry out command function. Area managers have to be knowledgeable. They should know all national standards and agreements concerning environment. Moreover, area managers are specialists, which are experts in international standards and agreements such as Kyoto Protocol, agreements connected with the climate change.

All managers of the fire services fulfill a function of control and organization. They must be well educated and provided by appropriate trainings. The firefighters are considered as subordinates to them. Their activities are guided by national or international standards and rules.


Fires cause an enormous material damage and in some cases are accompanied by death of people. Therefore, the protection from fire is the most important duty of every member of society and is conducted on a national and international scale. Depending on hazards and types of fires appropriate service must be applied.

The most important task of the fire services is to keep people lives. The next important task is to decrease the material damage. The third target of the service is to put out the fire.

The next important point is that the fire services must be provided in time. It can be explained as fires cause different negative effects and even deaths.  

The appropriate services can be offered in case of well prepared and educated staff and with a help of correctly formulated standards and rules connected with the fire services. The government makes a lot of efforts to provide effective fire services. State power invests educational and scientific institutions connected with development of the fire services. Moreover, it supports fire services institutions. Nevertheless, in some countries the institutions, which provide the fire services, are independent from the government.

The fire services shape the whole system with an offer of appropriate tools. Some issues connected with the fire services are able to be solved at the state level. However, the personnel including firefighters, crew managers, area managers, station managers, group managers and others have a direct bearing on the fire incidents.

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