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Buddhism is the most ancient world religion. Other world religions appeared much later; for example, Christianity arose approximately five hundred years later, and Islam appeared more than one thousand years later. Buddhism became a religion of different people of various cultural and religious traditions and background. “Buddhism became a religion of hundreds millions of people in the South East Asia, traditionally connected with the native land of Buddhism — India”, and in the Far East, which civilizations were formed on the basis of traditions of the Chinese culture. For more than one thousand years, Tibet has been the Buddhism citadel; it was the place where Indian culture was shaped, writing, and literary languages were created, and civilization was born.

Today, Buddhism is one of the world religions. The founder of the doctrine is Siddhartha Gautama, who ruled the state situated on the border of modern Nepal and India, more than 2500 years ago. Siddhartha was very rich; however, he saw people’s sufferings, and decided to look for the truth. Subsequently, in result of a meditation, he reached enlightenment and took the name Buddha. The word means the Awakened, a person for whom all the laws of a universe are opened. Latter, he began to preach the Doctrine, which was named after him, Buddhism.

Buddha’s followers cremated the Teacher’s body, according to the tradition. The governors of several states sent messengers with the request to give them small parts of Buddha’s remains. Therefore, the remains were divided into eight equal parts. These parts were placed in special reliquaries — stupas, cult boxes of the cone-shaped form, in the capitals of the states. One of the parts, the stupa from the ancient city of Kapilavatthu, was found in 1898 near the village of Piprahva. Today, this part of the remains is kept in the Indian National museum in New Delhi.

Among main Buddhism positions are the Doctrine about shelter, the Doctrine about four Noble truths, the Octonary way, the Doctrine about the relationship of cause and effect — the karma, the Doctrine about the compassion and love to all living beings, principles of tolerance, and nonviolence. The prime Buddhism target is to achieve nirvana. In Buddhism, it is believed that the person is responsible for his/her life and fate, there is nobody to rescue a person, and it is Buddha who shows the way to salvation. Nevertheless, this religion teaches people love and good.

Ethic and practical orientations are distinctive features of Buddhism. In Buddhism, external forms of religious life, for example, a church service or any ritual, are not significant. The central problem of Buddhism is a problem of a person’s life and decision-making. In Buddhism, a person, his or her inner world, and moral position are important. In addition, the doctrine of the Buddha about “four noble truths” plays a special role, “there is a suffering; the suffering has a reason; it is necessary to be released from the suffering; it is necessary to find a way leading to release from it.”

There are some traditional forms and methods of activities in Buddhism, for example, hurals, sermons, a meditative solitary life, and a cult of honoring local deities. Each believer decides whether to fast, observe some vows and rites or not on his or her own. There is no food ban in Buddhism; however, smoking, alcohol intake, and dissolute behavior are condemned. On the other hand, the harmonious relations in a family are encouraged. The monks of the highest monastic dedications accept the chastity vow.

Buddhism encourages education. There are no restrictions in relation to the civil rights and duties for religious Buddhists of all sexes. Healthy Buddhists are supposed to care about a body and mind; however, for sick people, Buddhism offers Tibetan medicine.

Buddhism became a part of everyday life of many people of different background from different corners of the globe. It has changed local traditions, and even managed to influence the world in general. Buddhism promoted the culture blossoming, development of architecture (the construction of temples, monasteries, and mortars), fine arts (Buddhist sculpture and painting), and literature (especially poetry).

Buddhism emergence was a natural event in the contemporary society, in which suffering was inevitable for the vast majority of people. Buddhism mystified this suffering, turned real human misfortunes into a “consciousness illusion,” and directed people’s efforts to release from sufferings. Moreover, the way people should treat suffering, offered by Buddhism, objectively proved to be a support for the society, in which compassions were inevitable.

Buddhism, with its practical direction to happiness and harmonies, has many things to offer a modern business world, which is often full of disorders, disasters, and difficulties. It helps people to live and act in understanding and balance, allowing love and wisdom to operate through a person, understanding the nature of suffering and pleasures of this world.

The Buddhist approach is in helping understand these problems and say to oneself “if there is a suffering, there is a treatment, too.” Then one should start working fairly and purposefully, in order to solve problems, eliminate them, and reach goals. When speaking the Buddhist language, there should be an understanding of the balance to eliminate sufferings.

Certainly, Buddhism, like any other religion, has some difficulties and problems. For example, it has problems with defining who is considered a Buddhist; it has problems with distinguishing the quantity of Buddhists who do not often take part in public Buddhism ceremonies; it does not have government policies on religion, in some historical Buddhist countries.

In the Buddhism tradition, since ancient times, it has been foretold that Buddhism would exist for 2500 years and then it either would undergo cardinal transformations or would disappear. In 2000, the Buddhist tradition celebrated exactly 2500 of its existence. The Tibetan Buddhists say that after leaving of the fourteenth Dalai Lama, nobody will ascend to his throne. Now the Buddhists admire the very fourteenth Dalai Lama. This fact proves that Buddhism will have an exceptionally long future.

Code: Sample20

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