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Culture refers to the way of life in a society. Every society has a culture which it embraces. Different societies have different cultures. Social interactions and interconnectedness form the basis of many cultures. The society plays a crucial role in formulating and maintaining the culture of a group of people. Culture dictates the way of life in any society. Culture has different expectations for men and women. It plays a vital role in formulating the code of conduct, and it dictates how one should behave in the society. Culture has become a part and parcel of life. The phenomenon of culture influences the way of people’s life and the way they think. In the contemporary world, some cultures are perceived to be more superior to others. For example, the western culture is perceived to be more superior as compared to other cultures. The differences in the cultures cannot be underestimated. Individuals suffer a lot when they get subjected to cultures which appear different from their own. In the modern society, a great variety of cultures can be distinguished. Lots of cultural exchanges occur in the society. The following concepts will be extremely useful in the understanding of culture.

Modern societies present different cultures. People come across a multitude of different and even contradictory traditions and beliefs when they get acquainted with the culture of a group other than theirs. They compare and confront the cultures, which oftentimes leads to ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism refers to a situation where a certain group of individuals hold perceptions that their culture is the best. This appears to be a serious challenge today. Ethnocentrism lays a perception that the cultural behaviors and practices of other groups are old fashioned and out of order. This kind of perception creates arguments among a group of individuals in the attempt to prove that their culture is the best. Ethnocentrism supporters claim that they have the best culture. They hold strong beliefs that their culture should be adopted by others. Ethnocentric groups also hold a perception that they have a civilized culture. As a result, the greatest problems associated with culture tend to originate from issues of ethnocentrism. All societies affirm that they have the best cultures; this forms the main reason why ethnocentrism emerges. No single culture can accept to undermine its own traditions and beliefs and adopt those of other cultures. The weaker societies face pressure from stronger groups as they try to influence their cultures.

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Relativism forms a part of the basis of ethics and morality. Relativism tends to pose challenges of what we refer as morality. It argues that every aspect of morality is relative. Relativism presents different cultural perception from ethnocentrism. In relation to relativism, ethnocentrism means that some cultures are more superior when compared to others. Whereas relativism argues that no single culture should be seen as superior, and individuals should adopt the culture that fits them most. Relativism argues that morality is relative to individuals and groups. Different cultures hold different perceptions of what should be considered as right and wrong. Relativism argues that what can be considered as moral in a particular culture may not be moral in another culture. Therefore, every individual should be allowed to do what he perceives to be moral in his own way.

Cultural globalization as a concept refers to the spread of cultural ideas and practices around the world. In the recent years, a lot of cultural exchange has occurred. Cultural globalization has immensely benefited the western culture. The western culture spreads more than the other cultures. Other cultures have adopted the western culture in a large extent. Many Africans have adopted western culture. In addition, there is a perception that the western culture is more superior to all other cultures in the world.

Ethnocentrism appears to be a part and parcel of life today. Reverse ethnocentrism has also occurred today where individuals think that other people’s culture is superior to their own culture. The western world has strong perceptions that the African culture should not be accepted since it is time barred. The western condemn the African cultural practices and strongly oppose African cultural acts such as early marriage, female circumcision and wife beating. Many western organizations working in Africa have started a severe fight against these cultural practices. African countries, such as Kenya, have practiced such traditions for a long time. However, through the campaigns, cultural erosion has occurred. The Kenyans have abandoned their cultural practices. Reverse ethnocentrism has also occurred. Many Africans hold the belief that the western culture is more superior and have adopted some of its elements. Africans have adopted the western attire on the belief that the western dress code is fashionable. In addition, Africans and Asians have adopted the eating habits of the Europeans.

Cultural globalization has occurred in almost all parts of the world. Cultural practices and beliefs change every day. Cultural practices of communities face erosion with new elements of borrowed culture being incorporated. The western culture has an upper hand on matters of globalization. In terms of dressing codes, it has been embraced in many regions of the globe. The African culture prohibited women from wearing short skirts. However the majority of African women wear miniskirts today. The Asians used to wear long dresses according to their religion. In the modern world, Asian women are now wearing short skirts as a result of westernization.

Relativism has occurred in many ways. Some cultural practices that exist in certain communities may not be acceptable in other communities. Relativism appears to be a leading   cause of cultural conflicts with some groups resisting cultural practices of others. For example, in the African culture, wife beating has been a common practice. Some communities view wife beating as a sign of love. In the western world, wife beating is not acceptable. The western people strongly oppose wife beating. The western widely accept lesbianism and    homosexuality. The Africans strongly oppose these practices. The African culture views man to be at a superior position as compared to women. The western culture has presented different perceptions on the issue. Female genital mutilation presents another source of differences. Some African culture strongly accepts it while the western cultures oppose it. It can be seen that cultures present different elements, which may not be accepted by others. Cultural elements should not be restrictive, and no single culture should be seen as superior. Cultures have their own short comings which need to be addressed.

The issue of culture raises a lot of questions on the main cause of cultural differences in the societies and how we can provide lasting solutions. It can be clearly seen that culture appears to be a substantial cause of many social problems in the society today. The conflicts can be associated with conflicting beliefs and opinions on various issues in life. The point of conflict arises when individuals try to prove that they hold more civilized and normal cultures than others. The effects of cultural differences can have a lot of negative impact in the society. In more severe cases, these internal conflicts might cause wars and damages.

Cultural conflicts can also occur between individuals who hold similar cultural beliefs and practices. Such circumstances occur when a group in a society adopts cultural practices that might be different from the practices of a society. For example, the youths have copied a lot of elements from the west, and this has led to intergenerational conflicts. Forcing a group of people to accept some cultural practices answers the question why people have cultural conflicts. A lot of conflicting issues have arisen between the African, Asian and the Westerners.

The western nations try to impose their culture on the Asians and Africans without considering the long held beliefs and perceptions. The resistance to change presents another source of cultural conflicts. Civilization should not change people's way of life, but it should accept that some cultural practices need to be abandoned. In the process of trying to effect modernization in the cultures, both resistance and conflicts normally arise. Lack of respect for other people’s cultures and beliefs appears to be a substantial source of cultural conflict. This occurs because some individuals support ethnocentrism too much, and they cannot easily accommodate other people’s cultures and beliefs. Hatred occurs between various groups due to the perceptions that they hold a more superior position than others. For example, hatred exists between the Muslim and Christians.

Every society understands that holding a strong social capital attracts power and influence. This provokes societies to protect their cultures. The question on the causes of the cultural conflicts appears to be an extremely crucial icon that should be addressed thoroughly. The reason why this question is essential is the long lived cultural conflicts that exist today. Sociologists have tried to cope with the issues of cultural differences. Cultural conflicts present a cause of many social issues in the society. Culture forms a significant part of individual lives and one cannot do away with it. In their attempt to provide solutions to social issues, sociologists should address the causes of cultural conflicts. In conclusion, we should address the root causes of cultural conflicts and differences so as to provide solutions to social evils. Every culture has some shortcomings. Societies should be ready to change their long lived beliefs for the better.

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