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Elementary schools are designed to introduce concepts and assist children in language development. Language development involves teaching the children, oral, listening, reading and writing skills.  Cultural responsive teaching is premised on the fact that culture influences the learning of children. Cultural responsive teaching ensures that cultural experiences are incorporated into the teaching methods to ensure that learning is made effective through capitalising on the strengths of children. It is a comprehensive approach that bridges academic and cultural experiences. This is done through acknowledging the cultural practises of the different ethnic groups. In addition it ensures that children are able to appreciate the diverse cultural differences between them. This approach employs a wide variety of strategies connected to different learning styles. This learning strategy incorporates a wide range of multicultural information, materials and resources in all the subjects and skills that are taught in schools. For example literature that is taught in class should incorporate all the relevant ethnic perspectives and genres. The ideas employed in learning should not be far searched but should touch on every day issues. Culturally responsive teaching ensures that the child develops the social, emotional, intellectual and political aspects.  Therefore culturally responsive teaching emphasizes not only on academic achievement but also in development of cultural heritage.

Emergent literacy notes that children usually have vague knowledge regarding to reading and writing before they enrol for school (Roe et al, 2008). In fact children in their learning process try to relate new knowledge with the environment surrounding them. Teachers should nurture this previous knowledge and use it to expand the child’s language development. Usually majority of students come to school with partially developed listening and speaking skills, therefore the teacher should play the role of a facilitator to enhance further development of oral expression and comprehension. The child should also be provided with learning materials such as charts, labels and a wide range of print which act as a stimulus for language development (Roe et al, 2008).

The most widely used materials today are the printed reading series which come along with a complete teacher’s guide and other supplementary materials. There are various approaches used today in teaching and each assumed a variety of materials. The literature based approach incorporates the use of visual, kinetic and auditory modes in learning.

Roe et al, (2008) discusses three of the theories that explain the reading process these are: the interactive, transitive and the sub skills theory .The comprehensive literacy instruction entails the use of a wide range of print material to enhance reading. This system makes use of systematic and direct instruction of concepts in print, phonemic awareness, letter identification, comprehension, phonics vocabulary, phonics and fluency (Bahaga, 1999). This explains the use of a variety of reading material.ls which includes decidable texts, levelled texts, pattern texts, information books and stories. The comprehensive literacy instruction incorporates the several writing styles. Therefore, the child has to participate in writing each and every day. A diverse range of texts incorporating various topics are provided for the purpose of reading. These texts incorporate various social settings found within the school and outside school.

The elements of comprehensive literacy instruction are premised in the transactional theory. The transactional theory asserts that reading is a transaction between the reader and the texts. This theory has its origin from the real estate sector where the real estate seller and the buyer change their status soon after the transaction (Bahaga, 1999). Similarly in this case the text is assumed to be the agent bridging the author and the reader. The reader uses his/her life experiences, prior knowledge and background skills to interpret the text. It is assumed that after the transaction both the reader and the text assume new status (Bahaga, 1999). The transaction theory occur in a wide range of circumstances  including and not limited to trading situation, reading kitchen recopies, directions and advertisements. Therefore the transactional theories also incorporate the element of dynamism. The transactional theory is based on the efferent and aesthetic stance. The efferent stance asserts that one should read the text with a goal of remembering the information in order to pass a text. The aesthetic stance holds that past experiences enables one appreciate the text and become an active participant of the events depicted in the text.

Code: Sample20

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