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Domestication happens when a population of plants and animals is changed at the genetic level through the process of selection in order to benefit human beings. The process of domestication involves artificial selection of populations of plants and animals for a variety of reasons such as food production, provision of myriad services such as transportation, production of valuable products such as silk, and promotion of scientific research.  Roots (2007) asserts that domestication is specifically aimed at benefitting and satisfying the interests of human beings in their daily interactions with the domesticated plants and animals.

Domesticated and wild plants and animals exhibit immense morphological and behavioral differences. This is because of the different ecological conditions in which they live and the need for adaptability to these conditions. Morphological characteristics are those used to refer to the physical structures of plants and animals while behavioral characteristics are those that refer to the natural tendencies of plants and instincts of animals.

Wild plants have thorns, stinging hairs, and spikes on that are used for protection purposes while domesticated plants have smooth leaves. According to Altman & Hasegawa (2011), most of the wild plants such as cactus have thorns on their surfaces that provide security to the plant. The thorns are also meant to reduce the rate of water loss and help them adapt to the climatic conditions that they grow. In addition to the thorns and spikes, wild plants have other protective structures that help them survive in the wild conditions. Domesticated plants grow under the protection of human beings hence have smooth leaves that make it easier for human beings to care for them.

Most wild plants exhibit protective habits unlike domesticated most domesticated plants, which do not exhibit protective habits. Protective habits are those that are meant to ensure that there is no interference with the growth of the plant. Most wild plants exhibit protective habits that enable them keep unwanted forces off. For instance, some wild plants have poisonous fruits, roots, and spikes that help keep off enemies that interfere with the growth. On the other hand, most of the plants that are domesticated do not show protective habits due to the lack of defensive mechanisms. Thus, there is a large difference between the behavior of wild plants and domesticated plants in terms of defense against the interference of external forces.

Domesticated animals like cows and sheep have shorter horns unlike wild animals like buffaloes and elephants that have long and huge horns.  Nelson (2000) observes that domestic animals are friendly in their relationships with human beings and are used for different purposes. Therefore, some of the domesticated animals like cows have shorter horns compared to their wild counterparts like buffaloes that have large horns, which ensure that they effectively protect themselves. Wild animals have large horns that enable them survive in their wild habitats by threatening any approaching enemy and reaching their food resources. Domesticated animals have smaller horns that help them carry out different functions such as aiding in the preparation of farms.

Wild animals exhibit migratory habits unlike domesticated animals. Wild animals keep on moving from one ecological setting to another in search for food and secure living habitats. Kimber (2002) points out that migratory habits principally occur during extreme weather conditions in their natural habitats and hence the need to move to better and more comfortable habitats. This is especially common among wild animals such as the wilder beast, which move from one area to another in search for food resources. Domesticated animals are under the care of humans and do not have to move around in the search for foods and security. Therefore, they stay within the boundaries set by humans and adjust to the care of humans.

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