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Homosexuality is a cross cultural issue which has perpetuated the spread of HIV/ AIDS. In this sense, it is arguable that the prevalence of homosexuality is made possible by the available social context. In particular, homosexuals are judged and viewed through the eye of culture. This is to suggest that culture and the social context of a population is a determinant of whether homosexual can be practiced or not.  As a matter of fact, there are some of the cultural norms that affect the prevalence of homosexuals in different countries. Basically, in Pakistan and the sub-Saharan Africa the issue of homosexuality can be described as a cross cultural issue attributed to the spread of HIV. In essence, homosexuality is a cross cultural issue in that it affects all the cultures or in this case for the Pakistan and Sub-Saharan Africa. In relation to HIV/AIDS, it is a sexual disease that has plagued the sexual health across all the cultures (Umeh, 1997).

Following this point, the research question meant for investigation is whether homosexual as a cross cultural issue has contributed to the spread of HIV/AIDS. In Pakistan, the spread of HIV has been on the increase of which it has been attributed to a lack of condom usage among men who have sex with men. In fact, it is illegal and punishable by law to carry a condom among the Pakistani (Rajabali et al., 2008). In this sense, there has been an increased number of those affected by HIV as there is no access to safe sex practices. Again in this context, it is against the religion and taboos along with beliefs of the Islam to practice homosexual practice (Rajabali et al., 2008). Research has pointed out that this has driven homosexual community underground hindering them from being educated regarding safer sexual practices.

 In a way, however,  this has limited the homosexuals’ prevalence and thus it has made it possible for HIV to be easily prevented in terms of its spread. In this context, Sub- Saharan Africa has homosexuals as well. Following this point, men who commit sex with other men in Sub-Saharan Africa have been associated with high HIV risks as it is presumed that anal sex is safer in this region. Although this group is at a high risk of contacting the disease, political, religious and social shames have continually humiliated homosexuals and thus it makes them to hide in their behaviors (Smith et al., 2009). Remarkably, there has been violence, stigmatization, harassment by authorities and humiliation altogether of which it has made homosexuals to go underground in fear of the repercussions. This has as a result perpetuated HIV/ AIDS prevalence as it is impossible to reach these people through messages about HIV as well as the prevention of the same (Smith et al., 2009). This is what makes it necessary to research on this topic in order to promote ways of reaching the homosexuals and thus help them to prevent HIV/ AIDS from spreading among them.

This research question has a lot of significance in that it will help the many homosexuals at the risk of contacting HIV to receive the necessary education and subsequently adapt to safer sexual practices (Glass & Stolley, 2009). In order to accomplish this task or research to be precise, several methods will be utilized. As such, sources of information such as books, journals and newspapers will be utilized to give the background information on the perception of homosexuals in both Pakistan and Sub- Saharan Africa community.

In the same line of thought, prevalence of HIV/AIDS will be explored among these communities making the use of interviews with some of the few exposed homosexuals and other people in these communities regarding their view of HIV and the homosexuals and how they can be helped. Reports from the sexual health departments regarding the HIV victims related to homosexuals will also be brought into view. This will then be evaluated and analyzed to establish the relationship that exists. The expected results of the research will be that traditions, culture and social context that the homosexuals live in has a great effect on the spread of HIV/ AIDS among them in the larger perspective.

The initial plan of the proposed research above will take place within two months. As such, the collection of data and information will take a length of one month. This will be both in some sub-Saharan Africa countries along with Pakistan of which sources of information as highlighted will be the most preferably to be used. In the next month, evaluation as well as the analysis of the collected data will be done within three weeks. In line with this, the conclusions will be done from the data analyzed and recommendations made within the last one week.

Code: Sample20

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