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Question one: What are the main differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes with regards to their cellular structure?

Eukaryotes are unicellular organisms, or if they are multicellular all the cells are similar and there is no cellular differentiation. The nucleus forms in every cell, which includes the DNA with a membrane called the nuclear membrane. The eukaryotic cells contain cytoplasm which contains all the organelles, and a cytoplasmic membrane that encloses the cell contents. Eukaryotic cells are about ten micrometers (up to one hundred for the biggest) in diameter. On the other hand, prokaryotes do not have a real nucleus: the single chromosome diffuses in the cytoplasm with no nuclear membrane enclosing the nucleic material. Few organelles are present in the cytoplasm like ribosomes and they have a cell wall (Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Cells). The cell size is about one micrometer (up to one hundred times smaller than eukaryotic protists).

Question two: Why is immersion oil needed to see the smallest samples? 

Immersion oil works in microscopy for greater resolution at high magnification. It is transparent oil which is highly viscous with specific optical characteristics. It has a high refractive index which works by immersing the specimen and the objective lens. This leads to an increase of the objective lens numerical aperture resulting into optimal resolution. The other objective lenses i.e. x4, x10 and x40 serve as a preliminary of locating the field to view and the cells before switching to x100 which gives finer details of the cell structures. For example, once one mounts a slide on the microscope, the x10 lens locates the slide and the field of view. The x40 lens then shows the main details in the field of view and then immersion oil put on the slide to aid in viewing of the finer cell details at x100 objective lens magnification (Molloy, 1999, pr. 3).

Which of the organisms listed are fungi? 

Yeast, mould and aspergillus are fungi. These are multicellular organisms except for yeast which is single celled, about three to five microns in diameter. Fungi have filamentous branching structures called hyphae that form from cells lying end to end. The hyphae may be branched or sometimes massed together to form mycelia. The hyphae of some symbiotic fungi functions by penetrating the cells of the host referred to as haustoria in order to obtain food and inject other useful or harmful substances. Fungi have a cell wall composed of chitin unlike plants which have cellulose in their cell wall. At any phase of the life cycle fungi do not have flagella as they move toward food by growing towards it (Escobar, 2009).

Which organism is neither prokaryote nor eukaryote? 

The virus plague as cell organization that looks like neither prokaryotic nor eukaryotic. They have nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) included in a protective capsid. Some viruses also have an envelope (enveloped viruses). They are about 10 to 100 times smaller than bacteria. They do not have the ability to reproduce on their own as bacteria do. They need another cell, named host where they invade to obtain food substances and in the process may harm the host. They use proteins or organelles from the host cell to develop themselves and kill the cell; that is why they have the name obligatory intracellular parasites (Viruses).

Code: Sample20

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