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The system level seeks to examine a state’s behaviour, by looking at the international system, while the state level examines the foreign policy behaviour amongst states with reference to the characteristics of the states in question. To study international relations at the national level has the benefit of appreciating that the state organs are sovereign entities and as such bear the ultimate and final authority with reference to the delimited territories and the inhabitants therein. The state level theory however not without hindsight, one of them being that it presumes that states are the sole actors within the field of world politics.

However in studying international relations at the national level is as famously recognized by Arnold Wolfers (482-502) that “national interests” are non-existent. This differs from the system level as the latter bear the view that the states to some level behave in some certain fundamental characteristics.

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Russett (82-115) bears the opinion that despite common believe, that democracies do not make war with each other, he bears the opinion, which has developed a lot of consensus democracies are just as likely to make war just like any other regime. Realists however would disagree with this opinion as they find autocracies being more susceptible to war.

Francis Fukuyama views that the major factors to the end of history as being the competing ideologies having reached its terminus within the context of liberal democracy. Accordingly, Huntington, one of Fukuyama’s greatest critics is of the opinion that the cultures and religious identities will be the core sources of post-Cold War crisis in the world. Fukuyama argument that radical Islam opinions fail to form a formidable force against the liberal western democracy has become today’s reality. I support this ideology as the radical Islam has continued to propagate hatred amongst the nations rather than address specific issues they fight for or against diplomatically.

Barber believes that the realist paradigm has failed to provide U.S. guidance on U.S. foreign policy in the 21st century as the U.S. adversaries are no longer motivated by “interest”. The main differences between organizational process theory and bureaucratic politics is that while the former focuses on the processes at work through standard operating procedures in the government and even weapons systems the latter focuses on the clash among bureaucratic actors with conflicting interests. On the other hand, realists believe that the government should filter individual unrealistic opinions to develop realistic ones. Robert Spencer and David Wood debate “Anjem Choudary and Omar Bakri: Did Muhammad exist?” surrounds around the issue of the Islam religion, its origin and jihadist.

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