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In power systems, voltage regulation refers to the ability of a power system to deliver a near constant voltage over a massive range of load conditions. In order to achieve quality and efficiency in a power system, the quality of the voltage is measured in terms of a stable and constant output of voltage, the assumption in the variation in temperature of electrical components within the power system, and in most cases, semiconductors based devices. In addition, it is important to understand that voltage regulators are vital parts of the power systems, as well as power supplies.

In power systems, high voltage is achieved in high voltage power networks when the latter has adequate performance and is sufficiently reliable  without using more resources than needed. In shrinking device dimensions, an increased rate of switching frequencies and power consumption results into increased switching currents to circulate in the power and ground networks. Excessive reduction in voltage in the power grid influences the switching speed. It has been noted that this also impacts the noise margin of circuits and results into noise which may result into functional failures. Therefore, it is vital to design a power distribution network  to achieve an efficient voltage regulation at the points of power consumption, considering the massive changes in power demand. This may be achieved by using a minimum area of metal layers.

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The capacitance which exists between the ground distribution network and the source  is a charge storage and assists in mitigating the voltage drop at any given point. However, in some situations, the decoupling capacitance may not be adequate to constrain the voltage drop within safe bounds. Therefore, power systems designers require to add decoupling capacitances which may not be free and increase the area and the leakage power consumption used in the chip. It is vital to make decisions about the size and structures of the power grid to be made easy at the initial phases. The most important analysis should focus on the size of the network and since the voltage drops are less that 10% of the total power supply voltage, the evaluation of the grid analysis reduces to solving a linear network. However, to further minimize the network side, the hierarchy can be used to exploit the power distribution models.

Power transmission networks should have a high reliability in order to achieve a strong performance guarantee, in all circumstances. Therefore, power systems should have strong structures providing alternative routes to allow for efficient power flow and transfer to occur.


The main advantage of a high voltage is that it provides regions with a reliable source of power supply which generally consists of crucial areas of power consumption due to the economic importance they have on power consumption. Thus, in order to enhance this function, subtransmission networks must be looped since it is an important strategy which ensures that there is a steady and efficient delivery of energy coupled with adequate and reasonable security guarantees.


The disadvantage of such a power system is that it leads into a low-circuit impedances in some sections of the power system. The low impedance may contribute into a high short circuit current incase there are occurrences of errors. In addition, there should be a constant source of power supply to the regions which they serve. There are controllers which are used to maintain voltage stability in the power systems. Power quality has become a major concern among the users and the utilities, hence leading to the development  and the application of more stringent standards as a result of the connection of more sophisticated load. New technologies have been designed such as the FACTS %u2012 a flexible, reliable and intelligent electrical energy delivery systems (FRIENDS). The first example is the application of a suitable location of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) and a proper coordination between FACTS controllers to improve voltage stability of the power systems. The FACTS provide a good remedy for the prevention of voltage instability and, hence, a voltage collapse.

The FACTS systems were created to solve the operation problem, as a result of the restrictions on the construction of the transmission lines in order to boost the power system stability margins. However, one of the obstacles of this approach is that they only take into consideration normal state of the power system. The mot notable causes of voltage collapse are attributed to disturbance such as the outage of a line or a fault system or the generating unit, or an increase in load demand. Therefore, to locate the FACTS apparatus, it is vital to consider the normal state of the power system with some approaches being proposed to locate the FACTS devices while considering the many contingencies, which may arise.

Advantages and Disadvantages of FACTS Over Traditional Controllers in Power Systems

Utilization of the under loads taps changing (ULTC) affects the higher side of voltage magnitude by altering the amount of reactive power demands at the bus. However, these devices experience some constrains, such as the discontinuity which is caused by their stepwise controls  and other problems caused by the amount of switching. FACTS systems are important because they make it possible to control power flows and a bus voltage. Another advantage is that FACT devices make it possible to control power flows and bus flows rapidly and accurately. Some of the important FACT devices include static var compensator (SVC) which is an excellent and efficient reactive power source and load, and is an adequate equipment used in the power systems to control the voltage magnitude in a given bus. Voltage control is an important aspect of the power systems involving the regulation of voltage flow at the distribution feeders. The main reason of voltage control is to enhance the susceptance value or to reduce the operating frequency of the power system.

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