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Surgery is a healthcare area in which near misses and preventable errors often occur. Until 1999, clinicians remained unaware about surgery related injuries or deaths due to the absence of a mechanism to establish reports and track the events. The greatest concern is wrong-site surgery, which encapsulates surgery that is undertaken on an incorrect or wrong site on the body. At another level, such kind of surgery may be performed using wrong procedures or done on a wrong patient.

Since wrong-site surgery is possible, I would propose to have four individuals to help in solving the dispute. The first person is the surgeon who performed the operation. This person would help to understand how the operation was done. The second person would be the clinician who guided the surgeon regarding the case of the patient. The third person would be the nurse who was involved. The reason for choosing the nurse is because she/he could have helped to carry out the normal activities that are required to make the operation possible. Finally, I would suggest having a close relative or friend of a patient who helped in confirming the operation needs of the patient.

Open communication is critical in enhancing group performance (Berko, et al., 2010). However, group dynamics may undermine the extent to which open communication is effective. For instance, the existing informal groupings among workers may prevent communication from taking the official path. Regardless of the setbacks that group dynamics would present, I intend to take the following steps in fostering open communication. The first step in enhancing open communication is to inform each worker about organizational activities. This requires that one should take time to communicate what is taking place. Secondly, using an open door policy is suggested. Having such a policy would allow each person to share whatever ideas he or she has. Thirdly, allowing people to express their ideas is necessary. Such a step would permit each person to raise any concerns that they have about the work place. In the fourth step, no person should be victimized based on the ideas that they raise regarding any issue. A step of this magnitude would promote trust and openness within any organization.

The North American Spine Society (NASS) and the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) were in the forefront in the process of establishing measures to prevent wrong-site surgery. They initiated awareness campaigns to check the prevalence of wrong-site surgery in the US. The societies used such terms as "Sign Your Site” and later added the word "No" to the incorrect site. The program proved successful as it reminded practitioners to be extra cautious in their work. After some time, the associations incorporated the use of “Sign, Mark, and X-ray” which listed requirements such as a verification process. Based on this establishment, it is evident that awareness creation is an important strategy that is useful in controlling wrong-site surgery.

From 2003, it emerged that wrong-site surgery was escalating. Further, effects of wrong-site surgery on patients, patients' families and healthcare professionals were mounting. The North American Spine Society (NASS) and the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) again came together and established a protocol, The Universal Protocol for Preventing Wrong Site, Wrong Procedure, and Wrong Person Surgery. The protocol was applicable to all invasive procedures. The primary motive was to reduce or eliminate wrong-site surgery using regular and acceptable processes to verify patient’s details and correct sites. This protocol made a significant contribution towards the prevention of wrong procedure, wrong site and wrong person surgery. This point also helps in illustrating how to prevent wrong-site surgery. Thus, it is arguable that initiation and use of protocols offers a critical strategy that is significant in preventing wrong-site surgery.

Code: Sample20

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