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The human body relies on various organs to ensure effective functionality; these organs can be categorized in terms of how they are related to each other. These categories will make up the systems necessary for normal human body functions.

An endocrine system is a group of glands secreting hormones that control body functions such as growth and metabolism. Examples of glands associated with the endocrine system are the parathyroid gland, thyroid gland, pituitary gland, adrenal glands, testes, ovaries, and pancreas.

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Ovaries and testes are the organs, which secrete hormones associated with reproduction characteristics.

Parathyroid glands help in controlling calcium amounts in the body, adrenal glands are useful to the both nervous system and the metabolic system. The nervous system is responsible for reactions to stress while metabolism is linked to digestion.

The pituitary gland secretes several hormones that affect other endocrinal glands while the thyroid gland secretes chemicals that kindle body heat production, metabolism, and growth in bones.

The pancreas is one of the major body glands as it facilitates the production of digestive enzymes and hormones; it has enzyme-producing cells responsible for the secretion of insulin and glucagon.

There are three main types of diabetes. One of them is juvenile diabetes, which is typical during childhood. The second type is more common in adulthood and is triggered by poor health and obesity. The third one is the much less common gestational diabetes triggered by pregnancy although it can be temporary.

Insulin is specifically produced by the islets of Langerhans. It enables the utilization of glucose by body cells to produce energy. It is responsible to reduce blood sugar levels. When the islets of Langerhans degenerate to a level that they are not able to produce adequate insulin, a person suffers from type I diabetes. The sufferer will have to correct the situation by taking insulin injections.

Type II diabetes mellitus occurs due to the failure of body cells to respond appropriately to the insulin produced. Insulin injections can also be used in this case to correct the malfunction. A glucose standard curve is a graphical representation showing changes of the blood glucose level over a period of time. It is helpful in determining the overall effect of insulin dosages, food, and activity.

The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) is most preferred in diagnosing diabetes as it is cost-effective and convenient; it is most reliable when conducted in the morning. The results are determined by a set of various levels illustrated on a table. Different levels reflect different stages of diabetes mellitus. For example over 100 but less than 130 milligrams per deciliter are said to be pre-diabetic, a condition known as impaired fasting glucose. A pre-diabetic is at an increased risk of contracting diabetes mellitus.

The cardiovascular system is also known as a circulatory system, it includes the blood vessels and the heart. Blood filled with nutrients, for example, oxygen is pumped by the heart and transmitted to other organs of the body by the respective blood vessels. Arteries are thick-walled to withstand the pressure of the blood while pumping. They get narrower as they go further away from the heart. Their walls contain muscles that are useful in decreasing the force from the heartbeat. As the blood pressure and amount decreases, arteries divide into smaller arterioles, which serve numerous capillaries. As the blood is being transported through these vessels its nutrients are transmitted to the cells, which need them. The blood then takes away the waste products produced by the active cells. This deoxygenated blood is taken back to the heart by the pulmonary vein. Veins are thinner-walled and have valves to prevent the backflow of blood; the blood reenters the heart to start the journey all over again.

The purpose of the human respiratory system is to facilitate the transmission of oxygen into the body tissues and organs and the removal of waste carbon dioxide. The respiratory system is divided into two parts: lower and upper tracts. The upper tract consists of the pharynx: this is the part where the throat separates into the trachea and the food pipe. The trachea is the passage through which air gets into the body; mouth and nasal cavity: the major functions of these parts are filtering of dust particles from the air and moistening it; larynx: larynx shields the trachea from any particles, which may find their way past the epiglottis.

The lower tract consists of bronchi and bronchioles. Bronchi are narrow tubes that connect the lungs to the trachea. They transport air to the lungs. Bronchi branch further into bronchioles leading into the alveolar sacs; diaphragm: this is the muscular base of the thoracic cavity; alveoli: they are cavities located within alveolar duct enclosed by numerous capillaries to allow the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen; trachea: this is the continuous tube from the throat to the lungs to facilitate the distribution of air; their interior has tiny hairs to capture dust particles or sediments.

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