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Tobacco smoking has health-related effects on both active and passive smokers. Health stakeholders have continually released reports on problems affecting smokers because of educating the public as well as prioritizing the public health policies to minimize tobacco-related ailments and deaths. However, tobacco companies rigorously attack the reports accusing them of exaggerating the scientific evidence provided in them. Most of cigarette manufacturing companies use false and misleading information in marketing and promoting their produce despite the adverse health effects that tobacco smoking has on the users. The tobacco companies have misled the public regarding the harmful effects of the toxic chemicals in their products and their addictive nature; therefore, they should be held legally responsible for all the illnesses and deaths associated with smoking.

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There are controversies regarding whom smoking affects. A section of people argue that tobacco smoking affects only smokers whereas the opponents of this approach argue that smoking affects both active smokers as well as passive smokers. Passive smokers are nonsmokers inhaling the tobacco smoke exhaled by the smokers around them. Smoking tobacco is addictive and thus smokers have the challenge to start smoking or stop the act at their will.  

Tobacco smoking has health-related effects on both the passive and active smokers. Evidence from medical research has revealed that smoking contributes to cancer of the lungs and the respiratory tract (Pakhare). Furthermore, tobacco smoking is harmful to human health because it causes bladder as well as pancreatic cancer. Moreover, additional health-related diseases arising from tobacco smoking include peripheral vascular ailment, a leading cause of chronic obstructive lung infection (Goodin 575).  A scientific report carried out in 1964 revealed that smoking cigarettes is associated with lung cancer. 8000 scientific reports were examined after a period of 14 months to come up with the conclusion (Nixon and West 404). The smoke from the cigarette contains such harmful chemicals as tar that cause lung cancer.

Fundamental research findings revealed that the level of tobacco effects on human health is shocking. In the United States, in excess of 300,000 deaths annually representing approximately 15 percent of the total deaths are related to the tobacco smoking. The implications of these findings translate to about 25 percent of the youths smoking more than a pack of cigarettes lose their lives earlier than their counterparts who do not smoke. According to the World Health Organization, tobacco epidemic continues at a worrying rate across the globe, and tobacco related effects killed approximately one million people in the world without intervention measures.

According to Goodin, moderate tobacco smokers are 68 percent more apt to die earlier than nonsmokers, whereas heavy tobacco smokers at almost double the rate of probability of moderate smokers. Chances of the moderate smokers are more than 10 times prone to the lung cancer deaths as opposed to nonsmokers. Smokers have increased the risk of developing such diseases as emphysema, bronchitis, larynx cancer, oral cancer, and heart-related ailments and subsequently are dying as opposed to nonsmokers with reduced risks. Male smokers are 22 times more likely to suffer from lung cancer deaths. Further, smokers are 220 percent likely to succumb to heart diseases.

Tobacco smoking is addictive and the smokers challenge to quit the habit. Smoking enslaves the addicts and constrains their willful stop of the harmful act. Tobacco smoking provides a social challenge to smokers because of the foul smell of the smoke that surrounds the environment. The smell is always repulsive even to smokers and affects their social lives with nonsmokers who may not welcome their presence. Smokers are affected such that they cough and experience breathing difficulties as a result of tobacco smoking. Smokers tire quickly after performing mild duties besides their energy levels and motivation to work are diminishing. The decreasing health of smokers weakens the body systems and translates into a reduced feeling to work harder in accomplishing the assigned or expected responsibilities.

Smokers spend increasingly more money tobacco. The money wasted on tobacco would be invested effectively if the smoker would quit the smoking habit. Smoking also makes the smokers susceptible to causing fire significant amount of poverty loss the death. Drivers who smoke while driving have caused several deadly accidents, which would have been avoided if they were nonsmokers. The negative psychological effects of smoking include a feeling of inadequacy when the substance is not available for use. Nicotine and the chemicals found in the tobacco smoke are addictive and when the smokers fail to get the smoke in their body system, the feeling of inadequacy creeps in, leading to a problem in quitting cigarette smoking (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

The Tobacco smoke has nicotine that is a toxic alkaloid. Tobacco contains carbon monoxide, prussic acid, tar and ammonia among other poisonous substances. The Tobacco manufacturers mislead the smokers with idea of filters making the cigarettes harmful. Cigarette filters cannot totally stop the harmful substances in the smoke to find their way into the human system. Nonetheless, the filters can help to reduce the magnitude of harmful substances getting into the body, depending on their quality. The cigarette filters reduce significantly the carcinogenic effects associated with smoking. The filters are used to absorb the dangerous carcinogenic substances of cigarette smoke before they enter the body system.  

During the 1960s, the tobacco industry misled the public resulting in several deaths. The industry continually discredited the scientific evidence revealing the harmful effects of smoking tobacco. This position was embraced by the industry as a way of creating doubt and controversy about the scientific findings to continue engaging in business. Smokers have increasingly become aware of the adverse effects of smoking on their health and would wish to quit as this addiction possesses serious challenges to them. This is evidence that tobacco smokers do not believe the information they get from the industry. Consequently, society ought to consider the industry to have misled them through deceptive information and practices. The tobacco manufacturers should clearly use acceptable and ethical information to market and promote their products, citing the scientific effects of smoking that the customers must be aware of besides taking the corporate social responsibility to engage the community in promoting the awareness on negative effects cigarette smoking.

Despite the harmful effects caused by cigarette smoking on society, the tobacco industry still insists on promoting and selling its products. Various governments, including the government of the United States, have failed to hinder the tobacco manufacturers from operating. The tobacco manufactures pay hefty tax returns to the governments, which argue that the vast experience the manufacturers have in the industry coupled with the scientific researchers are adequate to help the industry operate within t he required health boundaries.  

Smoking can be best fought through informal social pressure instead of legal sanctions. Smoking is perceived as a problem regarding the social life’s quality, which needs formal and enforceable codes and not hortatory. The moral approach of tackling the issue of smoking in society cannot be solely accomplished through moral mechanisms alone. Policy legislations should be used to back the moral approach of resolving the problem. Institutions should also be established to monitor the marketing and economic effects of cigarette smoking to mitigate on the serious health and economic issues that may be caused by the tobacco industry (The International Union Against Tuberculosis).

The tobacco industry does not accept the scientific evidence on the harmful effects that tobacco smoking causes to humans. The industry instead used a permutation of skilled public relations, legal and political plans to confuse the public, avoiding the responsibility for deaths and illnesses caused by their killer products. Collaborations between the industry actors and public health institutions should be encouraged to resolve the problem of the health challenges and effects caused by smoking cigarettes.

According to Glantz, Slade and Bero, the tobacco industry across the world is aware that nicotine is addictive, and it is the reason why individuals continually smoke to maintain the nicotine level within the body. The industry is aware of the health problems caused by tobacco smoking and tries to eliminate particular toxins, which cause these diseases. In contrast, the public view and image of the industry are different from their thoughts and actions.

Some governments across the globe have established policies and regulations to protect the passive smokers from the harmful toxins contained in the secondhand smoke. Notwithstanding, the tobacco industry across the world has succeeded in forestalling effective government regulation, holding public health action out of place and marketing besides promoting the toxic products (Glantz, Slade and Bero). Such manufactures should be apprehended and charged with the offenses committed to help in sending message to the industry concerning the importance of operating under lawful regulations.

The Governments should impose heavy taxes on the tobacco products to discourage smoking in a bid to reduce health problems related to smoking. The relevant government agencies should regulate the tobacco products because of their toxic health effects. The advertisement and tobacco product promotions ought to be restricted to protect children against the predatory marketing plans and public against misleading information that may be used in such activities. Moreover, the public should be educated about the risks of smoking as well as instituting litigation measures against tobacco companies, which mislead the public intentionally to sell their products. A knowledgeable public would be helpful in combating the problem of smoking out of ignorance, risking the health of the smokers. Smoking rate would decline, resulting to reduced health cases across the globe.

The research clearly demonstrates that tobacco smoking is harmful to human health in any form that it is consumed. The tobacco industry is well aware of the dangers smoking poses to the smokers but has continually misled the public to keep on selling their products. Millions death have resulted from tobacco smoking from which the tobacco industry has distanced itself. The government has done very little in the policy legislations and regulations to reduce or stop the health issues caused by smoking. Therefore, the tobacco companies should be held legally responsible for diseases and deaths associated with smoking because of the misleading information to the public that substances found in tobacco products are harmless and not addictive. Collaboration between various players in the tobacco industry, including the government, politicians and the tobacco manufacturers would help in instituting effective policy measures to curb the challenge.

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