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Free Example of U. S. War for Oil Essay

The question about the exhaustion of the world hydrocarbons reserves and related geopolitical implications continue being a burning issue of the military departments today. According to American geologist King Hubert, sooner or later the world will run out of the natural resources. In his peak theory he predicted, that the U.S. would be on the peak of oil production in 1970. Thus, having reached this year the U.S. oil production will decreased. The possible shortage of oil in the world market could lead to an aggravation of the geopolitical situation and push the unstable countries to collapse, says Italy's La Repubblica. Indeed, it is obvious, that all so-called “hot spots” on the map, where the wars and conflicts take place, are the territories rich of oil. In addition, not the last place in the conflict plays the U.S., which makes the situation in the world oil map very suspicious. What is more, the “color revolution” has been taken place in those countries, where there are lots of oil resources, and the U.S. all the times became a part of them, as NATO or the UN or some other organizations. For example, we will not take into account that none of the oil countries of the CIS (Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan) have any revolutions.

Actually, it was very strange, when Taliban offered the USA twice in 1999 and 2001 to remove Osama Ben Laden, but the country refused to take him and judge him. Then, the question is: why the U.S. continues its War on Terror, if it didn`t want to judge the leader of this terror (Philips, 2003). All these provoke the thought whether the U.S. was indeed fighting terror, or it was just a pretext to start the war. Thus, the aim of the research is to find out to what level have US energy policy, foreign policy, and security policy merged into one and what the role in this combination plays the oil issue.

History of Fossil Fuel Exploration and Use

1. Overview of oil exploration

Since ancient times, people have gathered oil from the surface of the earth (and water). At the same time oil is a fairly limited application. Once in the second half of the 19th century the safe kerosene lamp was invented, the demand for oil has risen dramatically. It started with the development of commercial oil production through drilling wells to the oil-saturated layers. With the discovery of electricity and distribution of electric lighting, the need for kerosene, as source of illumination, was reduced. At that time, the internal combustion engine was invented, and the rapid development of automobile industry began (Philips, 2003).

The historical data of oil production can be divided in two stages:
the first stage - from the beginning of oil production until 1979, when the largest oil production was first reached  (3235million tons) (Lanchester, 2007).

The second stage started in 1979 and continues until now. It was noted that from 1920 to 1970, the world oil production was increasing not only every  year, but also every decade. In general, the oil production has grown exponentially (doubling every 10 years). Since 1979 it has been the slowdown of the world oil production. In the early 80's there even was a short-term reduction in oil production. In the future, the growth in oil production was resumed, but not as rapidly as in the first stage (Philips, 2003).

Despite the decline in oil production in the early 80's and occasionally occurred crisis, in general, the global oil production is growing steadily. Average annual growth rate for the period from 1970 to 2010 amounted to about1.5%, and this is  less than the average annual growth rate of world GDP. The wars for oil  existed in the history since the oil was discovered. Thus, in 1973, the war broke out in October between Arabs and Israel. Its official aim was to cover all troubles between two countries. However, during the war the Suez Canal was disabled. As a result, the transportation of oil by tankers through the Suez Canal was breached. As a result, the entire channel was generously fertilizer by the mines. In addition, in 17 October 1973, all Arab countries decided on the "oil embargo" against the Western countries  supporting Israel. That was the key moment of the war. The price of oil immediately jumped from $ 3 to $ 12. Easily and fast the Arab countries  set an ultimatum to the Western countries. In the West, immediately the economic crisis occurred. The markets  collapsed, and the industry was stopped. Nevertheless, the crisis and the "oil embargo" was just one of the stages of an imminent financial crisis. In addition, the war was inevitable itself. It was programmed by the U.S. economic policy, and today it is a well-known fact. Actually, at any case there should be the interested side in the wars and crisis. The thing is that, as a rule the U.S. has been the part of the conflicts, from what it can be assumed that it is one of those interested parts (Lanchester, 2007).

2. Libyan Conflict

Even though the new president had been elected, the U.S. policy didn`t changed, which can be the obvious evidence that the oil conflicts are started by American Transnational corporations, however the president is definitely under their control. Thus, Libya is a very rich for the oil country. Thus, it was not a surprise that in the country the Civil War was started, and that the U.S. took a great role in solving the conflict.

The Civil War, started in Libya, is the armed conflict between the forces under the control of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, who has been Libyan leader since 1969 year, and armed National Transitional Council of Libya, backed by the League of Arab States, European Union, other States and international organizations, as well as the military aviation supported by NATO. The conflict began with the riots in February 2011 that took place after the overthrow of ruling regimes in neighboring Tunisia and Egypt, and quickly took the form of the Civil War. The Colonel opponents, taking a number of cities mainly in the east, conducted the fierce battles with the army of Libya, including mercenaries from different countries. On the 5th of March, the rebels announced the creation of the Transitional National Council of Libya, and proclaimed it the only legitimate government (Buck, 2011).

United Nation Security Council Resolution number 1973 is the resolution, adopted by the UN Security Council on March 17th, 2011. The resolution legislates the military intervention of the foreign states in Civil War in Libya as well as the protection of the civilians, and gives the right to destroy any troops posing the threat to the insurgents.

UN Security Council resolution demands immediate cease-fire and violence against the civilian population in Libya, bans all flights over Libya, except the humanitarian flights and evacuation of foreigners, authorizes any action to protect civilians, except the input of the occupation forces, bans all flights to Libya, freezes all assets of the Libyan leadership, extends the list of Libyan officials, sanctioned by the movement and etc.

Even though the resolution seems to be the best way in the solving the Libyan conflict, the six month passed after the resolution was adopted, and the war inside the country didn`t stop. In addition, other conflicts and questions occurred. The Russian Prime-Minister Volodymyr Putin claimed that the Security Council resolution is incomplete and flawed; moreover, the actions are very similar to those in the Medieval Ages. In fact, the resolution, according to Putin, is just a legal allowance for the invasion of a sovereign country. What is more, the Prime-Minister is not the only person, who thinks like this.

On the eve, the Arab League, which previously had supported the introduction of no-fly zone in the skies over Libya, criticized the operation. According to the General Secretary Amre Moussa, the previous discussions about the resolution don`t correspond the today’s usage of them. According to the Libyan authorities, during the military operations many civilian facilities, including hospitals, were destroyed. About 60 people were killed and more than 150 wounded; most of them were civilians. However, the coalition denies information about civilian casualties (Mohamed, 2006).

What is more, there are still lots of questions about the humanitarian intervention, whether it is the right way in solving the conflicts inside the country and whether it is, indeed, reasonable and legitimate international concept.

3. Iran`s New Conflict

Thus, soon the new Iran and the U.S. conflict can occur for oil. The United States responded to the Iran threat to shut the Strait of Hormuz. In the event that Iran attempts to block the Strait of Hormuz, the U.S. will take the force response, claims the television channel CBS aired the U.S. Defense Leon Panetta. "Our position is very clear - the U.S. would not tolerate the overlap of Hormuz irrigation. This is the red line that cannot be moved, and we will respond to it "- said Panetta," Interfax ". According to the newspaper VIEW, the Iranian newspaper "Khorasan" referring to a senior military Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC), Ashraf AliNouri, wrote that if the EU decided to ban the import of Iranian oil, Tehran would block the Strait of Hormuz. Strait of Hormuz is a way out of the Persian Gulf to the Gulf of Oman and to the Arabian Sea. Strait of Hormuz is the main transport corridor through which the oil, produced in the Gulf countries, is transported abroad, including the U.S. (Shivkumar, 2012).

According to the Minister of Economy and Finance Shamseddin Hosseini, the EU can consider such actions as "economic war" against Iran. In turn, Mohsen Gamsari, the Head of the International Department of the National Iranian Oil Company,  believes that the sanctions against the Iranian oil would lead to a sharp increase in the price of hydrocarbons, which will negatively affect the entire global economy (Shivkumar, 2012)..

4.  Sudan and Southern Sudan Conflict

In Africa, continuing the military confrontation between Sudan and Southern Sudan, Khartoum  made several attempts to free the captured southerners Heglig oil-bearing area, but they were unsuccessful. Flared up conflict had attracted the attention of the international community, whose sympathies were highly controversial. Washington has already condemned the South Sudan for military aggression, but there is speculation that it was only oral reprimand. Actually, independence of South Sudan was received thanks to the efforts of the United States and it is hard to imagine that Washington was not ready for this development. Perhaps the war started due to the U.S. support, since earlier, Washington had sent the military advisers to Southern Sudan. Not once  the rumors appeared that the U.S. and its Western allies supplied the weapons to Juba. However, it is known that Sudan is actively buying arms from Russia and China until the UN embargo on such shipments is cancelled (Lanchester, 2007).

The new conflict for oil has appeared and again the U.S. gives the protection to one of the conflicting countries.

Peak Oil Theory

  1. Basic principles

Marion King Hubbert, an American geophysicist, who in 1956 quantitatively described the behavior of oil and spoke at a conference of the American Petroleum Institute where he introduced the "peak of oil" theory. According to the theory, oil production in the continental U.S. (excluding Alaska) has peaked in the early 1970s, and then suddenly started to decline at the same pace as the growth took place. In addition, according to the predictions, the world production has to peak in around 2000. Hubbert`s mathematical model of oil production  is based on a Gaussian curve (Hubbert curve), with symmetric rise, peak, and decline toward zero (Fig. 1), which predicts that the total amount of oil production, as a function of time, follows a logistic curve. From this it follows that the rate of oil is a derivative of the logistic function of time..

On the basis of data of oil production in the past, and excluding external factors, such as lack of demand, the model predicts the date of maximum oil production for oil fields, several oil fields, or the whole region. This point is called the maximum output peak. The period after the peak is called depletion. The schedule rate of production for a single oil field has a bell shape: first, a gradual steady growth in production, then the rapid growth, which is followed by a plateau (peak) and, finally, a steep decline. 

When the deposits of oil are founded, the production of oil is small at first, because the required infrastructure is not built (at the time Hubbert laid 10 years from the beginning of the opening, before the start of pumping oil. Now it is about 6 years). As far as wells have been drilled and more efficient equipment installed the production increases. At some point the peak output is reached, which is impossible to surpass even with the improved technology or additional drilling. After, the peak oil production is slow, but it steadily decreases. After the peak, but before the oil field is completely exhausted, another important milestone can be reached when the extraction, transportation and processing of a barrel of oil consumed more energy than the amount of energy contained in the barrel. At this point, Hubbert argued, the oil production, in order to get more energy is unjustified, and the field can be neglected (Lanchester, 2007).

It should be noted that original wording of Hubbert has been referred to the "theoretical unbounded domain", and that the model must be amended if there are significant artificial factors (such as political or related to the protection of the environment).

2. Overview of Predictions and Facts

As predicted, the oil production in the U.S. peaked in 1971, and has been decreasing since that time. However, the world production has not reached a maximum in 2000. The proponents of the theory offer the explanation that Hubbert's model did not account the oil embargo in 1973 and 1979, made by OPEC, which reduced the global oil consumption and delayed peak (Lanchester, 2007).

ASPO, the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, is the community of scientists whose goal is to estimate the timing and consequences of passing the peak of global oil and gas. The organization was founded in 2000 by petroleum geologist Colin Campbell.  The ASPO includes scientists from Australia, Austria, Denmark, China, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. Members of association appear in the documentary film The End of Suburbia. Deffeyes applied the same techniques to the world's oil production. In the book «Hubbert's Peak: The Impending Oil Shortage2» he clearly  shows that the peak of world oil production was reached in November 24, 2005. Later, he moved that date, but only by 16 December of that year. Taking into account the fluctuations of the correctness of this assessment it will be clear in five or eight years (Mortishead, 2008).

Hubbert's theory is a constant subject of discussion because of the potential effects of reducing oil production, and the constant debate about energy policy.

In 1975, The National Academy of Sciences of the United States recognized the correctness of theoretical calculations, made by Hubbert. In the last years of life Hubbert insisted that the solar energy will come instead of hydrocarbons. Optimists believe that the oil production will grow slowly up to 2030. Jeremy Gilbert, the former BP (British Petroleum) chief engineer  said: "If someone tells you that Kuwait's oil reserves are 75 billion barrels, he/she has not even the slightest idea of how these billions are calculated". The analysis reports of the state-owned enterprise Saudi Aramco have shown that the country's oil reserves are systematically overestimated. It appears that Saudi Arabia is close to the depletion of oil resources more than anyone could think (Philips, 2003).

That`s why, it is not surprising that countries started to fight for oil.

Relationship between 11th of September and Peak Oil

1. Unknown version

If to analyze all the facts and details, it becomes obvious that the events, occurred on the 11th of September, and peak of oil are much related. Thus, some details should be gathered.

Cohen made up his own survey, according to which on the eve of the event Larry Silverstein, a Jewish American businessman leased the twin towers of the World Trade Center on July 24th, 2001. The terms of the lease were rather unusual. According to the agreement, he received the right to restore these buildings if they were destroyed. He immediately insured the building for $ 3.55 billion. The insurance was issued so that after the destruction, the court awarded him $ 4.55 billion, as the explosion of some of the buildings was considered as a separate attack. While there is a recovery, he pays no rent as determined by the contract. Every morning, Mr. Silverstein had breakfast at the restaurant "Windows on the World" on the top floor of one of the towers. However, the morning of September 11, 2001, he did not come back, as well as his daughter, who worked next door at the World Trade Center complex, which was also destroyed.

The other puzzle is Lovy Frank, the owner of Westfield America. In May 2001, Westfield paid $ 127 million for the 99-year lease of the stalls under the building towers of the World Trade Center. Full control over the retail commercial space would allow anyone to carry out the necessary work in his warehouse without the interference of outsiders. Lovy was a member of the Golani Brigade, which destroyed the civilian Palestinian population during the Arab-Israeli wars. On the September 11th, 2001 Lovy  didn`t show up.

Who has signed a decree authorizing the WTC lease Silverstein?

Eyzenberg Lewis, the Head of Transport Administration of New York. All three held senior positions in the organizations called Anti-Defamation League and the United Jewish Appeal.

Who conducted the privatization of state WTC complex?

Ronald Lauder. He was on the board of directors of the NY Board of Privatization and lobbied for the privatization of WTC complex. Lauder is actively involved in the activities of the following organizations:
- Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations.
- Jewish National Fund.
- The World Jewish Congress.
- The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.
- Anti-Defamation League. Lauder also financed the activities of the Mossad School in Herzliya, Israel, where there is also the headquarters of the Mossad.

Who is in charge of security at all three airports where the terrorists boarded the planes?

Huntsleigh USA, a subsidiary of ICTS International; ICTS International is owned by Ezra Harel (died 2003) and Menachem Atzmonu, both Israeli Jews. Under the strict company's supervision, supposedly19 Arabs were able to carry on board aircraft cutting tools and a gun. ICTS was also responsible for airport security when Richard Reid or, the shoe bomber, boarded the plane (Cohen, 2001).

Who was on the board of American Flight 11 Earliness?

According to Cohen, Daniel Mark Levin, an Israeli Jew, who was a member of the Israeli special commando teams, engaged in the fight against hijacking and murder. First, the flight attendant Betty Ong pointed 9B as the place where the fighting started. Then the official version was changed to the fact that he fighter was shot, and then killed. A conversation with the stewardess on the ground controllers lasted 23 minutes, but the investigation committee of  September 11 attacks classified the record, and signed up only 4.5 minutes available to the public.

Who is in charge of security at the WTC?

Kroll Associates UK Ltd.

Who is running the Kroll Associates Company?

Jerome Hauer. Jerome's mother, Rosa Muskatin Hauer, is honorable Dean of the Institute of Beth Israel and an honorary president of the New York branch of Hadassah, an organization of  Zion`s daughters.

Actually, this chain is very long. The only thing that became obvious out of the survey is that Al-Qaida group was just set up by someone, who needed the pretext to start the war on terror. What is more, the official version of the events is hardly to be proved. However, even if the act of terrorism was planned by Israel, for the U.S. it was much convenient to put all responsibility on Al-Qaida, as Israel doesn’t have oil.

Thus, the following conclusion can be made: we cannot be sure who was responsible for the events on the September 11th, whether it was the U.S. itself or not, however, we can be 100% sure that the events became very convenient for the U.S.

 2. 09/11 who is responsible?

For a clearer understanding of what happened, it is necessary to understand the preconditions for the implementation of the September 11th events. According to the official version, the ultra-radical Islamic terrorist organization "Al Qaeda", which was created during the stay of Soviet army in Afghanistan, is responsible for the 9/11events. After the Soviet withdrawal, the vector control was redirected to the United States. The U.S. government moved its commercial bench, called the Fed, and has led provocative foreign policy, aimed at conquest of other people's resources and achieving the world domination under the guise of spreading democracy. The official motive of what happened is considered to be the presence of the U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, the support of Israeli unwillingness to condemn the U.S. occupation of Palestine and the Lebanon War in 1982 (Cohen, 2001).

Moreover, there is an even more compromising version of what happened provided by the U.S. government. It tells about the involvement of the U.S. political elite in the events of 11th September 2001, the establishment of "Al Qaeda" and the adjustment of its activities, the work of American intelligence agencies themselves in order to create an opportunity to begin the so-called "war against terrorism", which involves the expansion of spheres of influence to the east and conquest of new economic resources.

What is more, another version of the Jews involvement has appeared.

After analyzing all three versions it can be identified only one miserable, unwavering truth: because of the blind thirst for domination and resources, the government and the shadow elite of the United States ceased to value human life, and people are considered as nothing more than a bargaining chip to achieve the political goals. On that bloody day about 3,000 innocent people died, and even more people were killed in the frame of the “war on terrorism” policy.

Alternative Energy

Alternative fuels are solid, liquid and gas fuels, which are the appropriate alternatives to traditional fuels and are produced (extracted) from unconventional sources and types of energy resources. Unconventional sources and types of energy resources are the raw materials plant, waste, solid combustible substance, other natural and artificial sources and types of energy resources, including oil, gas, gas condensate and oil and gas exhausted, non-industrial values and technological fields, heavy grades of oil, natural bitumen, gas-saturated water, gas hydrates, etc., production (extraction) and processing of which are required by the application. In addition, the alternative energy can be the energy of sun, wind and ocean, which are starting to be used. It is believed that if humans start to use the above mentioned sources for their all power, there won`t be a need to produce oil at all. However, in order to use these types of energy fully, much time and efforts should be spend, that is why the above mentioned systems can be fully available in the future (Lanchester, 2007).

Conclusions

To sum up, the oil is considered to be the black gold. Thus, in the future, the paper money would be nothing as compared to oil, especially when the oil resources are reducing. It is not the coincidence that many conflicts, where the U.S. has taken part, started somewhere around 2000 year. According to the Hubbert predictions, the peak of the world oil resources had to be approximately in 2000. Everyone is aware that sooner or later it would happen. Thus, the September events took place in 2001, the Libyan Conflict is still not finished. In addition, the new Iraq conflict can be made up. What is more, there is evidence that the U.S. doesn’t take part occasionally in all conflicts between the countries rich for oil. Stating that the US aim is only humanitarian intervention, the country imposes imperialism. That is why, it is not matter who is the author of the September act of terrorism, in any case, the U.S. would had been taken the perfect situation to start the war, the war for oil. 

Code: Sample20

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