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Terrorism refers to the systematic application of terror, particularly as a means of compulsion. However, according to the international community, terrorism has no criminal law, legally binding and universally agreed definition. Ordinary terrorism definition alludes to all acts of violence that are intended to generate fear, and are committed for ideological goals, religious or political views and intentionally disregarding or targeting civilians. The application of related tactics by criminal organizations for security rackets or to implement a silence code is generally not regarded as an act of terrorism though these equal actions may be termed as acts of terrorism when perpetrated by a politically aggravated group (Whittaker, 2007).

Following the end of the Second World War, there emerged what is currently referred to as modern terrorism. Since then, large terrorist groups - with improved and more dynamic methods of organization, strategizing and carrying out their terrorist acts - have come up. For instance, narco-terrorism is among the major divisions of terrorism that has recently come under the spotlight. This is a type of terrorism associates drugs to terrorism in two main ways; first, the revenue earned from the drugs or narcotics may be used to finance the acts of terrorism. In addition, the drug barons may take advantage of exploiting terrorism as a means of controlling the production and supply networks.

According to White (2009), proponents of the narco-terrorism deem that those involved in the terrorist acts use narcotics drugs to lucratively carry out and fund their operations. On the other hand, opponents have cleaved to the argument that the government usually applies the term narco-terrorism to magnify their own power. Within the context of Napoleon’s summary of the new terrorist economy, Napoleon affirms that globalization produced pockets in the globe whereby botched states were left to administrate with little financially viable and political power. Terrorist groups, therefore, became strong enough and seized the moment to resist the state, and consequently, they ended up running their own subversive economies. They in retaliation provided some form of political solidity. In order to be effective, the concerned terrorist groups generally forms some form of shell state usually defined as an organization. The organization usually steps in place of the government whenever the government is incapacitated in enforcing law or providing social order (White, 2009).

Napoleon clearly indicates that modern terrorism is sustained by groups in shell states that consistently keep on changing and adjusting their organizational formation and political ambition in order to retain income from an international dissident economy. He strongly argues that poverty should not be used as a scapegoat to substantiate terrorism, but instead economic and political failure results in the surfacing of shell states where terrorism can be well thought-out and funded. If the napoleon’s and macroeconomic theories are correct, then there may have significance for the nature of counter terrorism (White, 2009). Otherwise, counter terrorism policies should be meant at providing the world general population with economic constancy, prospect and participation in the conventional economy.

Various analysts have steadily appreciated the significant role played by financing terrorism. Although a single terrorist operation may not require a lot of money, the overall terrorist’s operations budget is quite substantial. In addition, the organization of violence related to politics necessitates a huge financial backing. According to a report by White (2009), facilitating terrorists’ activities over a long time period need large cash outlays. Although poverty may cause terrorism, political and economic failures may lead to a shell state where terrorism can is funded and organized. Several terrorist groupings create a shell state distinct as an association that replaces the administration in a place where the government is incapable of enforcing law or does not provide proper social orders.

Code: Sample20

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