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All over the world, different people have different attitudes towards sex. As an example, some people can only have sex using the missionary position style i.e. the woman lying down on her back, facing the man who is on her top. This has been adopted since Christian Missionaries revealed to people that other styles were unnatural. On the other hand, other people prefer using a variety of different positions. Different people get more arousal differently, either by good breasts, chest, buttocks and more others. Different cultures have different sexual attractiveness regarding to the part of the body that is more erotic. Abkhazian men are more aroused by women’s armpits; in New Guinea and on Celebes Islands knee is more erotic, whereas in the United States armpits provoke negative attitudes towards sexuality.

Depending on these different approaches, as a community we accept that there exists a cultural diversity, and we should not regard others as abnormal in a case where their behaviors fall within what we refer to as the normal range of response. The normal sex behavior in a community is well defined by the community that one is living hence there is no specification describing the normal sex behavior. Therefore, a society’s behavior should not be regarded as normal or correct, whereas others are termed as abnormal.

In human male reproductive system, sperms are produced within seminiferous tubules by a process known as spermatogenesis. In early childhood, primordial germ cells in the testes differentiate into immature cells known as spermatogonia that become active at puberty. Reaching puberty, male reproductive hormones stimulate division of the spermatogonia cells by mitosis. Spermatids formed from spermatogenesis develop by a process known as spermiogenesis to a mature sperm. The sperm head contains acrosome, an enzyme that aids in sperm penetration to a female gamete. The middle part has numerous mitochondria that provide the sperm with energy (ATP), and the tail has a flagellum for locomotion.

Male genitalia facilitate ejaculation and sperm production and are controlled by the brain’s anterior pituitary and hypothalamus. Brain’s hypothalamus simulates secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone that stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). The released FSH assists in the stermatogenesis process in the seminiferous tubule whereas LH stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone.

The testes release the sperms to the epididymis where they undergo maturation process and gain fertility as they propagate through the epididymis. Upon maturation sperms are stored in the lower portion of epididymis awaiting ejaculation. For ejaculation to be successful, sperms have to reach outside the male reproductive system by passing through a series of ducts. The duct system consists of Vas Deferens, ejaculatory duct and urethra.

Vas Deferens is a tube that is contiguous with the epididymis and forms an ampulla before reaching the prostate gland. Vas Deferens proximal portion stores the sperms, which are propelled through the tube by peristalsis movements. The proximal portion of Vas Deferens has a spermatic cord with testicular nerve, cremaster for warming the testes and testicular artery and veins for supplying to the testes.

At the ampulla, Vas Deferens unites with the seminal vesicle duct forming ejaculatory duct, which passes through the prostate gland and opens to the urethra at the seminal colliculus.

 The urethra is a pass way for sperms and other fluids from male reproductive system and extends to the tip of the penis from the urinary bladder. The male urethra is divided into prostatic urethra that passes through the prostate gland and receives the ejaculatory duct. Penile urethra extends along with the penis and opens to the outside.

Semen is a mixture of seminal fluids and sperms and is made in seminal vesicles found behind the urinary bladder. The seminal vesicle produces a thick alkaline fluid which contains simple sugars that supply the sperms with nutrients. The functions of the semen are to transport the sperm, nourish the sperm and to neutralize acids found in a urethra, and in a vaginal tract.

From Biblical perspective, Hebrews would regard females under menstruation as people who were impure, unclean and restricted any contact between them and men for at least 7 days. Hebrews stated that upon sexual intercourse, menstruating woman would induce the condition of uncleanness to the man. For a woman to have contact with men again, she was to have a ritual bath as in the case of Niddah. Despite many progress from Biblical times, there are still many people who develop negative attitude on cases of menstruation. Both genders regard menstruating women as less clean, less likable and more irritable. In most cases, menstruating women have a negative attitude towards themselves.

It should be clear that, there is nothing nasty or dirty with menstruation and it is not also mysterious but an important basic biological process in the females’ body. The discharge only contains mucus, small amount of blood and sloughed off endometrial tissue. From contraceptive point of view, menstruation period is the safest phase in females’ that prevents pregnancy in case of unprotected sex intercourse.

Barriers

Disabilities affecting and influencing people’s life range from mental to physical. Barriers that prevent many persons with disabilities from having a sexual relationship arise from the disabled person themselves and the social structure surrounding them. According to King, lacks of self-esteem make people with disabilities look at themselves as unworthy and undeserving for a sexual relationship. Also, they have inadequate behaviors of expressing their sexual desires since they have limited social contact. Other barriers include people’s attitude towards the disabled; mostly parents, in a bid to protect them tend to hide the truth about sex and relationships. In addition, society considers them different and gives empathy instead. No one is willing to involve with them as they are perceived as a burden.

Remedies

In order to change this, we ought to help persons with disabilities gain high sexual self-esteem of themselves. Families living with persons with disabilities should be frank and open to matters pertaining sexual relationship as well as educating them. The society needs to consider them as sexual beings regardless of their appearance, mental or  physical capabilities. People are obliged to understand their partners irrespective of their status, and express genuine emotional intimacy and care for them.

Complications of an individual if not treated in the initial stage of:

Gonorrhea

The complications in case of men as explained by King (1999) include; inflammation and permanent damage of the bladder and internal reproductive system. There is inflammation of the internal reproductive system in women. Sometimes the cases move to heart, joints and skin. Also, babies infected during birth may suffer blindness. 

Chlamydia

In men, the complications include; infection of the epididymis and prostrate and cause sterility, causes pelvic inflammation in case of women and also causes blindness in newborns and premature deliveries.

Syphilis

The complications include; blindness, deformed bones and teeth, organ abnormalities that may result into early death and deafness.

Oral Herpes

It is an infection of the mouth and lips caused by a very specific type of herpes simplex virus also known as HSV-1 (King, 1999).

Genital Herpes

It is a sexually transmitted disease caused by herpes simplex virus type HSV-1 OR HSV-2.

Yes, since the term oral in oral herpes implies that it is spread orally, that is, through a mouth and lips and the genital in the second case clearly shows it is a genital disease and, therefore, transmitted through sexual intercourse.

How Hormonal Methods of Contraception Work

The contraceptive patch is a thin band placed on the stomach, skin of the buttocks or upper torso. It contains the hormones progestin and estrogen and releases them into the woman’s body preventing the ovaries from releasing an ovum. The hormones, also, tend to thicken a woman’s cervical mucus which offers a barrier to sperm moving towards the egg. The patch is placed once a week for three weeks. When using pills, the synthetic hormones interrupt the normal-biochemistry used in the menstrual cycle by acting on the pituitary glands including the uterus. Synthetic hormones in the pill interrupt the normal biochemistry of the menstrual cycle by acting on the pituitary gland as well as the uterus itself.

Effectiveness

The effectiveness includes; decreased risk of endometrial (ovarian cancer), reduction of monthly periods and menstrual pain, and decrease in rheumatoid arthritis.

Side Effects

It causes negative moods, in some women, it increases risks to pregnant women and during child birth, and it does not protect from acquiring STDs.

Legal Methods of Abortion in the USA

The methods available include; medical abortion, which is used 8 weeks after a woman’s last menstrual period and surgical abortion which is used for pregnancies of 16 weeks or more.


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