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Slavery  in  Britain  was  abolished  in  1807.  “The  civil  rights  movement  of  the  1960's  have  left  many  people  with  the belief  that  the  slave  trade  was  exclusively  a  European  and  United  States  phenomenon  and  only  white  people  were to blame  for  it.” ( Williams, 2007)  But,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  slave  trade  flourished  in  the  early  middle  ages,  as  early  as  9th  century,  especially  between  Muslim  traders  and  western  African  kingdomsKings  of  the  tribes  were  often  selling  their  own  people  to  the  Spaniards,  Italians  and  others.  In  the  middle  ages,  all  European  countries  outlawed  slavery,  but  African  kingdoms continued  their  trade.  Then  the  Muslim  trade  of  African  slaves  came  to  an  end  when  Arab domination  was  reduced  by  the  Crusades.  The  USA  fought  with  Morocco,  Algiers,  Tunis  and  Tripoli  in  1801  in  order to  stop  Arab  slave  trade  of  Christians.  The  Dutch  were  the  first  to  bring  black  slaves  into  North  America,  but  black slaves  had  already  been  used  all  over  the  world,  including  South  and  Central  America.  Eventually,  millions  of  slaves died  on  ships  and  of  diseases,  millions  of  blacks  worked  for  free  to  allow  the  Western  economies  to  flourish,  and the  economic  interests  in  slavery  became  extremely  strong.

There  are  different  views,  which  support  the  idea,  that  industrial  revolution  was  financed  with  the  help  of  the  capital  created by  slavery,  but  it  is  absolutely  wrong.  Slavery  did  not  create  a  major  share  of  the  capital  that  financed  the European  industrial  revolution.  The  combined  profits  of  the  slave  trade  and  West  Indian  plantations  did  not  add  up to five  percent  of  Britain's  national  income  at  the  time  of  the  industrial  revolution.  But,  it  is  true  that  European colonists could  not  have  settled  and  developed  North  and  South  America  and  the  Caribbean  without  slave  labor.  “Slave  labor did  produce  the  major  consumer  goods  that  were  the  basis  of  world  trade  during  the  eighteenth  and  early nineteenth centuries:  coffee,  cotton,  rum,  sugar,  and  tobacco.”( Davis, 2006).

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There  is  no  doubt,  that  slavery  played  critical  role  in  economic development  in  the  pre-Civil  War  United  States.  Crop  of  slave-grown  cotton  provided  over  half  of  all  United  States  export  benefits.  By  1840,  the  South  grew  60  percent of the  world's  cotton  and  provided  huge  percent  of  the  cotton  consumed  by  the  British  textile  industry.  Therefore, slavery  paid  for  a  substantial  share  of  the  capital,  iron,  and  manufactured  good  that  laid  the  basis  for  American economic  growth.  In  addition,  mainly  because  the  South  specialized  in  cotton  production,  the  North  developed  a variety  of  businesses  that  provided  services  for  the  slave  South,  including  textile  factories,  a  meat  processing industry,  insurance  companies,  shippers,  and  cotton  brokers.  Moreover,  slavery  was  capable  of  producing  enormous amounts  of  wealth.  On  the  verge  of  the  Civil  War,  the  slave  South  had  achieved  a  level  of  wealth  not  matched  by Spain  or  Italy  until  the  eve  of  World  War  II  or  by  Mexico  or  India  until  1960.  As  late  as  the  1850s,  the  slave system  in  the  United  States  was  expanding  and  slave  owners  were  confident  about  the  future.  But,  abolitionists,  despite  the  fact  that  slavery  was  profitable  felt  that  slavery  degraded  labor,  inhibited  urbanization,  mechanization  and industrialization,  stifled  progress,  and  associated  slavery  with  economic  backwardness,  inefficiency  and  economic  and social collapse.  “When  the  North  started  war  on  slavery,  it  was  not  because  it  had  overcome  racism, but  rather  it was because  Northerners  identified  their  society  with  progress  and  viewed  slavery  as  an  obstacle  to  innovation,  moral improvement,  free  labor,  and commercial  as  well  as   economic  growth.” ( Davis, 2006)  Fortunately,  with  the  use  of modern  technique  the  use  of  slaves  was  no  more  profitable.

As  it was  said  above,  slavery  was  always  a  result  of  the  desire  of  great  powers  to  gain  wealth  with  the  help  of  cheap  labour.  During  the  age  or  Renaissance  as  well  as  during  Enlightenment  slaves  were  used  for  the  same  purpose.  The  fact,  that  the  kings  of  the  African  tribes  were  co-operating  with  slaveholders,  explains  why  entire  process  was  very  easy.

Code: Sample20

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