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In the book “Manifesto of the Communist Party” Marx and his coauthor, Engels, argue that all changes that are responsible for shaping the society, e.g. those seen in political institutions, are driven by a process of public struggle on the part of a certain society which bears similar economic interest. All this is done in order for the group to realize its economic goals. Struggles that have taken place throughout history from ancient times through the 19th century to the present day have been struggles of economically subsidiary groups against economically dominant groups who oppose their economic interests. The examples are tenants against landlords, slaves against masters and so on.

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The Appearance of the Modern Working Class

The book is published at a time when the modern industrialization was dominated by one subordinate group referred to as the bourgeoisie or the merchant class who were engaged in a struggle against the dictatorial elite of feudal society. Through commercial markets and exploration of metals, the bourgeoisie grew wealthier and politically stronger against the ancient order, it succeeded in overthrowing struggle and revolution. In the modern industrial world, the bourgeoisie is the dominant class that shapes the political field and society according to its wishes. Instead of eliminating the class struggle, it has replaced it and started putting its interests first. The bourgeoisie is perhaps the most powerful force in history to date. Their ambition for accumulation has led them to command the globe, forcing everyone to practice the capitalist mode of production.

Bourgeoisie has also altered many aspects of the society, family and even the traditional ways of rural civilizations and building big cities in their place. The process of production and exchange has resulted in the creation of a new subordinate class whose existence is fully dependent on the bourgeoisie. This group is the modern working class. The appearance of these people is the outcome of the expansion of capitalism. They are forced to work for the bourgeoisie for a return in the form of mere salary and exploited and forced to challenge each other through competition. Their wages remain small though production keeps getting high.

The Communist Manifesto was intended to mobilize society against the aristocratic rule of the traditional government. The Communist League, a revolutionary group headed by Marx and Engels had the intention of overthrowing the German government. The publishing of the track resulted in high criticism of the government. People were fed up with their system of governance and they all rose to the occasion when they were called for. They demonstrated in the towns, paralyzed government services and even engaged police in riots.

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Reflection of the Political Atmosphere in the Book “Manifesto of the Communist Party”

The manifesto reflected the political atmosphere in Europe at that time. It’s as a result of the book due to which workers recognized they were being exploited by the capitalists. Barricades were put in most cities in Europe. People fought for an end to the political and economic capitalist system. Unlike the dissenters who fought against the aristocratic rule, this time people had identified a new threat to their political and economic growth. They were so determined to eliminate the enemy that they eventually succeed. The manifesto elaborates how capitalism divides society into classes: the capitalists who possess the means of production i.e. mines, mills and factories, and the working class who sells their energy and intelligence in return for poor wages. Capitalism was to blame for social conflicts and the growth of ghettos in urban areas.

Workers of the World Unite!

The Communist Manifesto was a call for political action. It contained the famous slogan “Workers of the world unite!” Marx and Engels used the book to bring out the truths as they saw it regarding the way the world works. In The Communist Manifesto, the authors use romantic values and satire to ridicule the dominance of the merchant class in the political field. Some concepts of romanticism have been used in this book by Marx. An example is the elaborative concept of Das Kapital. Another one is the theory of historical materialism, which states that change can only be realized through collective action.

Romanticism started gaining popularity around the 18th century. People wanted to get rid of the monotonous philosophies they were used to. The philosophies were too rigid and saw human nature as something uniform. That is why they blocked human reasoning. On the other hand, romantics employed the use of self-consciousness. It is on this basis that Marx and Engel wrote their book. Romantics believed in expressing one’s self through art, poetry, music, philosophy, literature, etc.

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This resulted in romanticism being the preferred mode of expression for most authors during the 18th century. The authors use several tools of literature in their work. The examples are metaphors, similes, and idioms. In addition, there is the use of poetry towards the end of the book. The book advises that forces should unite in order to succeed. The exit of one class is replaced by the entry of another. Unless the controlling class listens to the wishes of the majority and especially the minority (workers) then economic and political turmoil is likely to remain.

It’s believed that the factory is the field for the creation of a class struggle that will expand into society at large. Modern workers will eventually come to realize that they are being exploited and consequently act. Though, this may not be realized soon as the economic system forces them to keep competing with one another for the low wages. Workers will one day realize their common fate, and work towards protecting their collective economic interests. They will be able to overcome their differences and work towards eliminating the bourgeoisie system.

The “communist manifesto” is arguably the best type of literature written in the 18th century. It was written at a time when the workers had become exhausted from doing jobs for the rich at poor wages. The book encouraged people to come together and fight to see justice in their society. This meant that the bourgeoisie had to let go of their political holds of the lives of the minority.

The use of romanticism by the authors of The Communist Manifesto makes their goals non-objective but rather conscious. People are able to associate themselves with the lessons learned in the book and that is why when they finally decide to demonstrate till justice is seen they don’t relent. The use of figures of speech, in addition, makes the book interesting and meaningful to the society it reflects.

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