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Fuller gave the proposal of the world game in 1960’s whose aim was to facilitate a complete, defensive, design-science approach to the key global challenges. The use of the name world referred to Fuller’s intention to address issues globally as opposed to tackling issues nationally. Bearing this in mind, the entire world is thus an applicable unit of this analysis thus it is not a town, city, state or a single nation being addressed. The analysis was designed to tackle the governance and social problems and despite use of the word ‘game’, the analysis is a very serious tool, only that Fuller wanted the analysis to make sense to everyone and not only the elites.

He sought that the findings would be distributed throughout using free press, be accepted as a start point to solve the problems of the society, force the political outlook to move in the direction that the imagination, values and problem solving skills of the individuals who played the open world game democratically wanted. The analysis had the view of the political course that some may think immature, if they only glanced at it in those years when Fuller was proposing it. Based on this writing, it is obvious that main function of Fuller’s map was to allow people view at the entire world without any form of boundaries.

Cedric Price's Fun City

Cedric Price sought for new approaches of looking at the world and was against the architectural establishment by showing favour of the fundamental cross-disciplinary forms of partnership. He campaigned for mobility, temporality, democratization, risk-taking, play and criticality as the basic values relevant to confront conformist solutions. The central theme of this project was the necessity to re-examine the forces and fabric that characterise the physical or urban environment and otherwise. Cedric Price’s work tends to revolve around the association between preservation and demolition. Emphasizing that architecture should be contemporary in absolute terms. He challenges the demands that have been left by the past. Alike his other projects, Cedric price takes the figure of an elastic construction that can be built, dismantled, un-built, changed, or re-organized. This aims at encouraging the public to become innovative, engage in the public space and think the unthinkable (Design Museum, 2012).

In regards to modern architecture, Peter Zumthor did not believe in the adherence of this realm. He designed sixty rooms to expand the Red Restaurant without distorting its primary structure. In all these interventions, his work was not considered as a manifesto of modern architecture. On the contrary, it was owed to the style of house in a more astonishing way. Eisenman’s Wexner Center building was designed by Peter Eisenman of New York alongside Richard Trott (The New York Times, 2012). The work includes a huge metal grid which is meant to suggest scaffolding which makes the building look incomplete as per the architect’s deconstructivist taste. The end result of the building brought forward something which is sometimes questionable of functionality, but it has to be admitted that this was due to the architectural interest. Eisenman’s architectural work is normally criticised for self-promotion. His works are normally said to be too big, too expensive and extremely short in terms of content. As such it he does not conform to the requirements of modern architecture.

The Jewish Museum in Berllin, Germony is one of the major works of Daniel Libeskind. It consists of two buildings: one is the old Kollegienhaus which is a former court house of the 18th century and the other is an addition by Libeskind. Among all the other architects who had showed interest in designing the museum, only Libeskind design was chosen and reckoned as the only project that executed a fundamental, credible design that would clearly represent the lifestyle of the Jews prior to, during and past the holocaust. The building starts by taking the shape of the Jewish Star of David which stretches out around the site. The entire building takes the structure of a zigzag figure. Due to the sophistiucated nature of the building, it is reckoned as Libeskind capacity to interpret human afflictions into architecture.

Preston Scott Cohen is a renowned designer based in Boston and a professor in architecture at Harvard Graduate School of Design. Though he is not a registered architect, he is renowned for his buildings designs. He is also a principal at Preston Scott Cohen, Inc located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. One of his most successful works includes Tel aviv Museum in Israel which poses an amazing dispute: resolving the pressure between the rigid, peculiar triangular site and the need for having a chain of big, impartial galleries.

The term Bilbao effect describes how fast architecture can change an entire city and in the course transform that city into a cultural metropolis. Great architectural designs ought to be the centrepiece of the major urban space. Irrespective of how they might be classified, buildings define the cities in which they are build in. it thus doe s not matter whether the building is governmental, religious, commercial or religious (Travel News Distribution, 2008). The main origin of this phrase is iconic Bilbao building in Spain which introduced a new era in city planning and design. The strategy is set to revitalize cities and transform them into yet bigger metropolis.

One of the icons that embraced Bilbao effect was Archigram. This was an architectural group that was formed in the 1960s. The group drew inspiration from technology with the aim of creating a new reality which was entirely expressed by hypothetical projects (Travel News Distribution, 2008). Rafael Monao on the other explains the impact of Bilbao and not only in any other nation, but also at home. Most notably, the building is one of the most recognized in any country. It typically shows the museum “museum effect”. This is an operation whereby all the objects that are produced with “visible craft” and intended for “attentive looking” automatically becomes art. Zumthor is yet another renowned architecture whose works won him the 2009 Prtzker Prize. His works do represent a real defiance of the Bilbao effect. In his argument, Zumthor states that his architecture ethics are aimed at building monumentally for mass of categories. This means that one can only respect someone who ignores the press, avoiding his or her works to be publicised.

Currently, interior architects have been allowed to build and become the links between the interior designers and the architects. This is in the sense that whereas architects are mainly concerned with how buildings and the environment interact, interior architects are concerned with the way buildings with individuals working or living in them. As such, they consider the interior surface and structure, coordinating all the elements within the building to suit the people who are to live in them. These architects take care of all that make up the total space including walls, windows, colour, furnishing and the textures.

Valorisation of the exterior envelope on the other hand refers to the physical boundary between the exterior and interior environments of a building. This function as an outlet shell which assist in maintaining the internal environment as well as facilitate climate control. Currently, one of the main problems in nanoscience and technology is assembling tiny nano-building units into bigger mesoscale. In order to meet all these demands, an interior space for the nanostructures will be further required. The major theme of interior space is to consider human experience as well as the way people operate at work, home, school or in other public places in order to come up with appropriate structures that will meet their demands (The Princeton Review, 2012).

Some of the major architects who can be considered in relation to this theme are Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron. they renowned architects and their achievement was evident after they established the Herzog & de Meuron architecture firm. Visually, numerous modern buildings either echo their systems of construction or reminisce past styles and designs (Deplazes, 2012). This separation between construction and demonstration is somehow an additional room of modernity and tradition. The independence of the exterior, the "free facade," deduces a peculiarity between the nonstructural and structural elements of the construction, between the cladding and the frame (The MIT Press, 2012). When the skin of the building turned into an autonomous structure, it could as well droop like a curtain. The focal point of the link between structure and skin becomes obvious: architectural surface.

Code: Sample20

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