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Introduction

Motivation is a key factor in the future success of any company since it not only stimulates personal development but also helps to get extra profits and credibility in the market. From an academic perspective, work motivation is "a key construct in organizational research, where much research has been dedicated to an understanding of its antecedents and outcomes" (Dwivedula, Bredillet, & Muller, 2015, p. 1).

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The problem is that in the situation of the intense market and cultural development, motivation also needs radical reconsideration because money or reward is not always what employees need. In fact, for many employees, it is more important to have the internal motivation and be actively involved in the process.

This essay will show two different strategies of motivation such as classical behavioral and modern individual models when an individual is analyzed with regard to external and internal factors promoting work that differently affect the results of the company. The essay will also argue that the most successful strategy is modern motivation since it is focused on the internal needs of a person, determining the duration of involvement in the working process.

The first part of this essay will briefly introduce and outline the necessity of motivation for people. The second part of this paper will discuss classical motivation strategies, particularly Maslow's theory of basic/natural needs and McClelland's conception of power needs. The third part will then focus on the modern motivational strategies according to which an individual is a key aspect of a company.

The Necessity of Motivation

The starting point of particular employee motivation is knowledge and consideration of his/her needs. In this sense, the elaboration of the most efficient models is a major challenge for managers who try to incorporate psychological, sociological, and economic factors in their development. Hence, reasonable and productive working conditions that promote employees can be created only if the manager knows the needs of each worker in the company.

Apparently, this position is significant in the management strategy because it proposes the humanistic paradigm of work with the individual while stressing the need to consider personal needs and requests as the basic elements of profitable activity. The practice has shown that it is easy to envisage the declaration of the creation of a strategic motivation, whereas the development and implementation of specific strategies relating to the long-term incentive cause significant difficulties (Ramlall, 2004, p. 57).

However, despite these challenges, a strategic approach to staff motivation is needed as a part of the development of a relevant set of policies and personnel management practices.

Classical Strategies

Most of the classical theories of motivation virtually ignore individual differences in various types of employees. What is more, they suggest that different people act equally in the same situations. The main point is that external conditions play a more important role in their decisions to perform certain tasks. Following this idea, behavioral researchers have focused on two major factors in their explanation of individual motivation and work performance, namely the effects of the person's dispositions and environmental circumstances (Barrick & Mount, 2013, p. 132).

Naturally, all of these factors have different effects on motivation so that modern managers try to strike a balance between them in their strategies. Notwithstanding the fact that the classical theory examined environmental circumstances as the determining factor, this position has changed over time. However, the second one is still important because "our environment has important implications for our economy, our health, and the quality of our life" (Pelletier & Sharp, 2008, p. 211).

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Maslow's Theory of Motivation

Maslow is a creator of the sociological conception of motivation and stimulation that is grounded on the unchanging human needs. According to his theory, the strongest demand determines the behavior of a person as long as it will not be satisfied. The unmet needs, according to the theorist, motivate people to act, while the satisfied ones do no motivate them; thus, the unmet needs replace the last ones (Ramlall, 2004, p. 54). Evidently, these basic needs require primary pleasure so that when they are satisfied, secondary needs begin to operate. Accordingly, the managers should take into account the basic needs for the construction of a work plan.

In Maslow's theory, situational factors are not significant in the context of the needs. The author emphasized rigid sequences during the transition from one level to other needs directed upward (Ramlall, 2004, p. 58). Thereafter, he insisted that the second one leads to the weakening of their impact on motivation. In addition, the strategy for physical needs ignores individual dimensions of life since it is grounded on the impersonal instinctual behavior.

In fact, the individual has to realize himself/herself in society; hereby, the vertical paradigm of needs does not always work. In this case, David McClelland decided to rethink Maslow's conception, while developing his ideas in regard to the strategy of power needs, success, and accessories.

The Strategy of Power Needs

The recent trends indicate that the needs of higher levels are among the main motivational indicators in the management of motivation. David McClelland has elaborated such questions in his strategy. In fact, he suggests that some needs have no less influence than the higher needs, including the desire to be successful, the wish for power, and the craving for recognition (Bell, 2012, p. 148).

The model explains that the success of a particular employee is not treated as an achievement that deserves praise or recognition on the part of colleagues. In the reality, it is a private individual achievement in the implementation of active employment. Moreover, it is a willingness to participate in making difficult decisions and to bear personal responsibility for them.

McClelland's theory has led the management to learn more individual or symbolic requests for motivation, ignoring the previous idea of collective competition. Bell (2012) shows that "social psychological research has demonstrated the motivational effectiveness of interventions that put people in situations in which they are compelled to persuade themselves" (p. 145).

Hereby, the desire for power shows the human ability to work successfully at different levels of management in organizations. As for the craving for recognition, it is interpreted as the ability to be an informal leader and have their own opinion as well as the ability to convince others of personal beliefs. The aim of management, in this case, is to ensure that the director prepares workers to apply for new posts after attaining the certification, training, and retraining.

The Modern Strategies of Motivation

The scarce concept of motivation and stimulation was developed in a planned economy. In fact, there were three main factors that have influenced its formation, which has reflected more or less the scarce nature of the planned economy, namely the low value of a person, the residual principle of financing, and the development of public consumption funds. The low value of a person was a characteristic phenomenon for the entire period of the planned economy in the classical strategies of motivation (Ramlall, 2004, p. 62).

In the eighties, it was believed that the most profitable in economic and social terms are the future investments in a human person, particularly in the development of his/her professionalism. Until then, in essence, human resources are used on the basis of representations of their immensity, high endurance, and patience. The following factors are focused on the development of an individual's personality, which is valued particularly by major companies. The modern theories of motivation are grounded primarily on the behavior of people, including their perceptions and knowledge of life.

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Improvement of Working Conditions

Working conditions are not only a necessity but also a motive that impels a person to work while making a specific impact. Apparently, it can be both a factor and a consequence of productivity growth. Thereafter, after working a long time in poor hygienic conditions, a person cannot and, in fact, do not want to organize his/her workspace. There is a Japanese experiment, which shows that if the employees arranged their workplace in an orderly way, it would increase productivity by 10%.

The effectiveness of employment is affected by a number of factors, and the major among them are the motives to satisfy personal needs, especially competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Olafsen, Halvari, Forest, & Deci, 2015, p. 448). According to the experts of personnel services companies, the vast majority of needs can be satisfied only by a combination of intangible and tangible factors (Liu, Zhu, & Yang, 2010, p. 190).

Thus, the formation of the system of motivation and stimulation of labor activity should be aimed at different categories of workers, which must be motivated in different ways. Determination of the ratio of different motivating factors is dependent on the formulation of enterprise objectives and specific division of an employee in the context of general objectives of the enterprise (Cravens, Oliver, Oishi, & Stewart, 2015, p. 447).

Human needs have unique properties, and it is often difficult to take into account all of them. However, in the process of developing a system of motivation and stimulation of work, a person can always take into account the structure of motives with regard to similar characteristics and use different methods to promote their work (Funder, 2001, p. 199).

Thus, this idea is important for different personalities and attainment of their aims in a team. A person should feel as comfortable as possible while considering his/her interests and goals. The task of management is to turn employees' attention to this idea, claiming respect for personal space.

The Leadership

In modern management strategies of motivation, leaders play a major role owing to the fact that they can effectively develop both individual and collective skills. In addition, they have the ability to influence individuals and groups, encouraging them to work for the goal. In this case, workers follow the leader first because he/she is able to offer them the possibility to realize their needs (both natural and symbolical) and, in this way, specify the right direction (Ramlall, 2004, p. 60).

According to the personal leadership theory, the best managers have a certain set of common qualities, which are significant for other members in the collective (Olafsen et al., 2015, p. 452). However, some other researchers of this theory conclude that a person is not only a leader because he/she has set some striking personal features.

The presence of a leader is especially useful when there are different personalities because he/she should direct conflict or opposite visions in the right direction. Moreover, the leader should listen to all the visions in the company, but offer the most optimal and reasonable choice or even innovative suggestions (Liu, Zhu, & Yang, 2010, p. 192).

Funder (2001) defines personality as "an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanisms" hidden or not behind those patterns (p. 202). Therefore, he/she motivates people to act in a group of people, respect each other, and improve personal abilities according to the most important goals.

Formation of Goals or Vision

This objective becomes the foundation of the motivation system in any modern company since it proposes overcoming the classical idea of basic needs. When an employee has earned a certain amount of money, and it is enough for the basic needs, then the classic motivational model does not work.

Thereafter, a company should create something else because otherwise, the employee does not have motivation for work (Bell, 2012, p. 148). The strategic management of such a goal is called "vision". In fact, it is the main purpose of a company and a description of the future goals (it is should not be confused with the plan of sales).

The vision must be formulated by the first person in a company (the leader); thus, the previous factor in motivation is the crucial one. In fact, the head of a business should crave to achieve this vision and want to build such a company as recorded in the vision (Zhang, Hu, & Qiu, 2014, p. 1316). Moreover, the vision should motivate the most senior manager, and this should be noticeable from the outside. However, if they formulate the major goal of the company for the show (simply because it is needed), this motivational principle will not work. In this case, the workers instantly feel the insincerity of their boss.

Like-Minded People

The head should not impose and share his/her vision with the members but to find like-minded people. However, it does not mean that he/she does not have to justify its attainability. In fact, employees have the right to verify the validity of their objectives. The vision will unite key employees and the associates of the company (Zhang, Hu, & Qiu, 2014, p. 1317).

Therefore, like-minded people are those who want to achieve the vision by virtue of their personal aspirations. As a result, they do not need to impose it since most of them are self-motivated and, thus, have internal motivation.

The internal (intrinsic) motivation is a type of enthusiasm, in which the trigger and regulatory factors are grounded on the personal "I". The internally motivated activities have no incentive except for the activity so that persons do not need material compensation. It is obvious that they involve in this activity for its own sake rather than to achieve any external rewards. This activity is an end in itself rather than a means to achieve some other purpose.

Therefore, when talking about intrinsic motivation, it is a desire to do the work for its own sake, which seems to be the very essence of this kind of activity. Bell (2012) describes this idea in the following way, Respondents were asked to indicate their agreement with the following statements: "I felt motivated to perform the job because I enjoyed the task itself" (p. 147).

Therefore, the reward is a moment of experiencing something that is more than the mundane existence. The source of this motivation is the need for autonomy and self-determination.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the motivational strategies have two different directions that are reflected in the classical and the modern theory of management. On the one hand, the classical model takes into account the basic needs of an individual, which should be satisfied by an employer. In this case, motivation is always connected with external indicators, including extra money and career progression.

On the other hand, the current model shows that external motivational factors do not work at some point due to the fact that when a person has a lot of money, he/she does not have any motivation to work. Therefore, there is a need to form internal motivational purposes.

As for the second model, the most important are such factors as the improvement of working conditions, development of leadership abilities, the idea of vision, and search for like-minded people. The first two factors are implicitly present in the classical model as directed on the inner discipline and individual comfort. They are important for adaptation and socialization in the company as well as a sense of "self" in a team (competence, autonomy, and relatedness).

However, the most advanced is the vision and people of like mind because they work at the symbolic level. In this case, motivation involves creating an integrated and strong team, which can bring both profit and considerable social importance.

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