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Generally, Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) is a task examining framework, including those tasks that might be presumed to be essential in cognitive task analysis methods. It is a task examining strategy, designed to refine performances criteria, understanding task framework, focusing on constituent skills, and creating useful hypotheses for tackling problems in performance. The analysis offers a principled and neutral perspective that is not biased and allows analysts to substantiate through the use of different analytical methods and develop hypotheses as information is gained about the task. Task analysis is necessary because of a practical need to know in detail how things should be done or are done. When dealing with human-machine interaction, and more generally with how people use socio-technical artifacts, it is necessary to know both what activities and functions are required to accomplish a specified objective and how people habitually go about doing things—particularly since the latter often is significantly different from the former. Such knowledge is necessary to design, implement, and operate human-machine systems, and is especially important for figuring out how the interaction takes place and how it can be facilitated. HTA has applications that go well beyond interface and interaction design and can be used to address issues such as training, performance assessment, event reporting and analysis, function allocation, procedure writing, maintenance, risk assessment, and work management.

The HTA for changing the tire. The first step in conducting tire-changing HTA is to clearly identify and define the tasks involved. This will include defining the purpose of the task analysis effort.  In this activity, the general task is to change a flat tire. To accomplish this task, one has to follow a sequence of actions-tasks and subtasks such as jacking up the car, loosening the nuts, replacing the wheel etc

HTA table for changing a tire

1. Find a stable place tosecure the car

1.1. if using a standard transmission put car in "Park" position or put on reverse,

1.2. Secure Wheels

2. Take out the tools and Spare tire

2.1. Open the Car’s Trunk

2.2. Remove Spare tire

2.3. Remove Jack

2.4. Remove wheel brace

3. Jack up the vehicle

3.1. Loosen all wheel nuts-turn nut with wrench until hand loose

3.2. Set up Jack

3.2.1. Assemble Jack

3.2.2. Place jack under the frame behind the tire

3.2.3. Set jack lever to up and raise the car it until it is supporting it

4. Replace Tire

4.1. Remove lug nuts completely

4.2. Remove the deflated tire

4.3. Place the spare tire on the hub

4.4. secure the tire by putting on the lug nuts

5. Jack down car

5.1. Set jack lever down to Lower the car to the ground

5.2. remove the jack

6. Put the old tire and tools back

Once the task under analysis has been clearly defined, specific data details regarding the task is collected. This includes the technology to be used, interaction between the person and the machine, decisions and task constrains. The data collected during this process is used to inform the development of the HTA.

The overall task goal; to change a flat tire, will be specified at the top of the hierarchy.

Once the overall goal of the task has been specified, the next task is to break this overall goal down into meaningful sub-goals, which together form the tasks required to achieve the overall goal. Sequential relationships are imperative in identify the sequence in which the steps of a task should be carried out.

Code: Sample20

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