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According to Ibarra and Hansen (2011), multicultural teams produce better results, ‘provided they are well led’ (p. 71). The scholars substantiate the aforesaid statement with the logical premise that the ability to bring together people from diverse environments and cultures is an essential requirement for leaders. The aforesaid arguments must be verified by means of research.

In this connection, it is crucially to ascertain whether multinational teams reach better results than single-nation groups of people. Thus, a bunch of researchers assays that leadership is no longer an individual trait or discrepancy, ‘but rather is depicted in various models as dyadic, shared, relational, strategic, global, and a complex social dynamic’ (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009, p. 423). This means that the successes of a team which is well led are frequently connected with such processes as sharing, relationships, globalization, strategy, and social dynamics. From this perspective, multicultural teams are well and reach better results because all requirements of the successful leadership are completely realized in the framework of such teams.

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To put it briefly, the processes of sharing and relationships in a diverse team may become complicated without a professional guidance. Hence, it follows that those multicultural teams which demonstrate high levels of sharing and relationships should be regarded as well led. As the matter of fact, a homogeneous team is composed of people of similar cultural, religious, and other social norms, and, therefore, it is much easier to lead such people, rather than organize a diverse team.

The superiority of a well-led multinational team may be explicated with the help of some contemporary leadership theories. Thus, the theory of authentic leadership articulates that the leader possesses a series of transparent and ethical leader behaviours which fosters openness in sharing information needed to make decisions ‘while accepting followers’ inputs’ (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009, p. 423). In the context of a multicultural team, this theory helps to understand that the requirement of open sharing is crucial for the augmentation of cooperation and coordination within a diverse team.

Also, referring to Ibarra and Hansen’s assertion that ‘the ability to bring together people from different backgrounds, disciplines, cultures, and generation and leverage [...], is a must have for leaders’, it should be pointed out that the aforesaid ability can not be practically implemented without the provision of open sharing. In other words, people from different cultures will work as a team only if the open sharing is allowed in the framework of the organization.

The theory of transformational leadership extends the requirement of open sharing. According to the theory, leader’s deeds transform and inspire followers to perform beyond expectations ‘while transcending self-interest for the good of the organization’ (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009, p. 423). Assuredly, the success of a multicultural team depends on the leader’s ability to metamorphose and encourage the diverse community of followers. That is, the leader must transcend self-interest of an individual for the benefit of the organization as a whole.

Not opposed to contemporary theories of leadership, Ibarra and Hansen’s point of view may be tested with the help of some contemporary models of managerial leadership. There are four major models of leadership, such as transformational leadership, relational leadership, systematic leadership and the situational leadership, which may be applied to the peculiarities of multicultural teams (Harrison, 2011, p. 3). For instance, the model of systematic leadership allows the members of multicultural teams to be self-governing. This type of behaviour may incite a diverse team to be at the heart of settling institutional problems, as well as in developing loyalty and commitment. In the ultimate analysis, the model of systematic leadership always manifests itself as a shared leadership.

When all things are considered, it should be generalized that Ibarra and Hansen’s debate about the superiority of multicultural teams over one-nation teams is fully justified. The conducted research showed that diverse teams reach better results than single-nation teams because of the former are better led. In other words, the nature of multicultural cooperation requires a more complex and sophisticated leadership. The previous studies revealed that the phenomenon of leadership is no longer an individual trait or difference, but rather a complex social dynamics. Thus, the diversity is a salient feature of the contemporary leadership. Also, the open sharing should be regarded as a salient feature of modern managerial leadership.

Apart from the above, the debated assertion of Ibarra and Hansen has limitations and gaps. First, the authors appeal to some research findings showing that diverse teams reach better results. However, these findings are not mentioned in the debated statement and, therefore, it is impossible to evaluate their validity and reliability. Second, the better results of diverse teams are considered by Ibarra and Hansen to be premises for their inference that the aforesaid teams are better led. However, there is no substantial grounds to conclude that the better outcomes produced by diverse teams are directly caused by excellent leadership. Possibly, there are other not mentioned circumstances leading to positive results of diverse teams.

All things considered, it is possible to arrive at the conclusion that Ibarra and Hansen’s statement encourages further researches and discussions rather than provides a comprehensive and irrefutable answer to the question whether diverse teams are superior in leadership.

Blog 2: Change and resistance to change

In the scientific statement, Mullins (2010) asserts that change is a simple fact of life. Moreover, the research points out that the inclination to change, as well as resistance to change, is a strictly personal feature and management can make no substantial influence on people’s desire to change or to resist changes (Mullins, 2010, p. 753). Mullins’s approach to the concepts of change and resistance to change must be debated by way of exploring the real example of an organization which has implemented a programme of change. It is expected that the practical analysis of change in the organizational level will shed some light on the general appropriateness of changes in the domain of management.

In that vain, it is recommended to exemplify the practical implementation of change by scrutinizing the Northumbria Police’s programme of change. The key facets of the programme are concisely represented in the official web-site of Northumbria Police. According to this web-site Northumbria Police has elaborated a Programme of Change to implement more effective ways of functioning while maintaining the provisions of excellent services (‘Programme of change’, n.d.).

To fulfil the above-captioned objective, Northumbria Police have already found means to enhance the flexibility of their workforce by way of redistributing the servicemen to those places ‘where and when they are needed most’ (‘Programme of change’, n.d.). Also, according to the web-site of Northumbria Police, they have managed to decrease the rate of bureaucracy and management expenses. Expatiating on the program of change, it should be reiterated that Mullins (2010) considers the phenomenon of change to be totally dependent on human will, when ‘some people actively thrive on new challenges and constant change, while others prefer the comfort of the status quo and strongly resist any change’ (Mullins, 2010, p. 753).

In this light, it should be construed that neither management nor any other external force has made Northumbria Police to develop the program of change. The incentive to amend the theory and practice of policing evidently stems from Northumbria Police itself. In their web-site, it is the programme of change has reduced the level of crime in their area by more than 8 percent (‘Programme of change’, n.d.). Thus, the practical results of the programme of change may be associated with the fact that more than 7,000 fewer offences and thousands more families are safe in their residences and on the streets. Among other things, Northumbria Police claim that they are going to augment the effectiveness of services by way of decreasing the numbers of police staff and police officer posts. The crime and anti-social behaviour is expected to be diminished by way of cooperating with communities.

Taking into consideration that the employees of Northumbria Police personally implement the prescription of the Programme of Change, it is relevant to consider the policemen to be an implementation team. The term ‘implementation team’ means a team within an organization which is responsible for the practical implementation of changes rather than making diagnosis and strategic decisions (Higgins, & Weiner, 2012). In that vain, Northumbria Police have managed to combine two roles: 1) the role of a planner; and 2) the role of an implementer. This revelation gives reasonable grounds to agree with Mullins’s assertion that ‘it is all down to the personality of the individual’ to decide whether to resist or foster changes. Thus, Northumbria Police have independently decided that they need the programme of changes, whereas other organizations of police still sustain the resistance to changes.

After everything has been given due consideration, it might be prudently to generalize that Mullins’s statement about the peculiarities of changes and the nature of resistance to change is rational and pertinent. Genuinely, some organizations are reluctant or hesitant to implement changes, whereas the others actively seek for new challenges and constant metamorphoses. The practical example of Northumbria Police makes evident that the decision to make alterations depends on the will of individuals. Also, the conducted research clarifies that changes may lead to significant improvements and unexpected benefits if they are elaborated and implemented prudently.    

Blog 3: Analysis of leaders in global business

Bel (2010) asserts that ‘in surveys of most innovative companies, firms like Apple, Google, Microsoft, or Virgin regularly top the ranks, and stories of their emblematic leaders are recurring topics for management books and magazines’ (p. 47). In this connection, Bel (2010) put forth for consideration four derivative questions: 1) What do outstanding leaders such as Steve Jobs, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Bill Gates, and Richard Branson have in common? 2) What do they do to control innovations in their companies? 3) Are they the sole impetuses of innovation leadership? 4) Is there a direct nexus between the innovation potentiality of a firm and the charisma of its leader?

In order to provide comprehensive answers to the above-mentioned questions, a thorough research must be conducted. Thus, the first and second research questions emphasize the issue of common features in all charismatic leaders. Weber defines charisma as a marginal phenomenon which stems from ‘its total rebuke and repudiation of the institutional center per se’ (Hava, & Kwok-bun, 2012, p. 108). In view of the above, it should be presupposed that all prominent innovative leaders such as Steve Jobs and Bill Gates are emblematic because they are naturally charismatic leaders.

According to Rick D. Hackett (2012), charismatic leadership is ‘an interaction between leaders and their followers that result in changes of follower attitudes and motivation’ (p. 881). Genuinely, innovative companies and firms such as Apple, and Microsoft were created and developed by the leaders who managed to change the consciousness and worldviews of the followers. That is, the phenomenon of innovation in the frameworks of Apple and Microsoft was always driven by radical changes and new ideas, whereas only a negligible number of people were a priori confident that the up-to-date solutions of Steve Jobs and Bill Gates were doomed to success.

The personalities of Bill Gates and Steve Jobs clearly demonstrate that a charismatic leader must have such traits and qualities as trustworthiness, courage, self-sacrifice, and high integrity (Hackett, 2012, p. 881). The virtue of trustworthiness helps charismatic leaders to win trust of their followers. Actually, it is impossible to implement any serious innovative idea without trust. Furthermore, all charismatic leaders are courageous. Their courage is manifested in confident actions and speeches. They are prone to risk and new challenges. Finally, charismatic leaders are predisposed to self-sacrifice. They may sacrifice their personal life, money and social comfort for the benefit of new discoveries.

In the context of the third research question, it should be stated that charismatic leaders such as Bill Gates and Steve Jobs are not the lone drivers of innovation leadership. The conducted research has clarified that the complex system of leadership requires the existence of a leader and the followers. Without their reliable followers Bill Gates and Steve Jobs would have never materialized innovations nor would have attained prosperity and fame. 

As far as the fourth question is concerned, a mental note should be made that the correlations between the leader’s inner world and its outcomes ‘have effect on the nature of organizational culture and even strategic choices made in the company, as pointed out in many investigations’ (Takala, 2005, p. 48). Hence, it follows that charisma is one of the corner stones of all leadership theories, along with power, intelligence, persuasion, and personality (Philips, 2009). On these grounds, it is possible to agree with Bel (2010) that there is a direct nexus between the innovation capability of a firm and the charisma of its leader.

Notwithstanding its positive sides, charismatic leadership has its ‘dark sides’ as well. Takala (2005) reckons that charisma carries a tone of danger. Certainly, charismatic leaders can transform organizations by inciting members to higher levels of commitment and performance by inspiring them with an attractive vision which is absolutely discrepant to an undesirable status quo.

In the final analysis, it is possible to arrive at the conclusion that charisma of a leader plays a very important role in the management of innovative companies.

Blog 4: Ethical relationships between leaders and their teams

Rubin et al (2010) suggest that ethical leadership is ‘the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement and decision-making’ (pp. 216-217). Also, the researchers substantiate their thesis with evidence that ‘ethical leader behaviour can have important positive effects on both individual and organizational effectiveness’ (Rubin et al, 2010, pp. 216-217).

The aforesaid statements of Rubin et al may be verified by way of conducting a diligent research. First and foremost, it is essentially clarify what ethical leadership truly is. In this connection, many authors are disposed to think that leadership is inherently linked with questions of ethics (Eubanks, Brown, & Ybema, 2012, p. 1). To put it briefly, leaders’ aspirations, practices, decisions, and behaviours have been found to have a moral constituent.

In like manner, Craig E Johnson, Paul M Shelton, and Laurie Yates (2012) are inclined to believe that there is a manifest linkage between ethical leader behaviour and organizational trust, satisfaction with operational results, and apprehended organizational effectiveness (p. 3). In that vain, Johnson et al (2012) detects that, notwithstanding the possibility for unethical leaders to succeed, an augmenting amount of evidence makes clear that ‘ethical leaders are frequently more, not less, effective than their less ethical counterparts’ (p. 3). Another bunch of researchers ascertains that the followers of ethical leaders are more satisfied and devoted to the organization, more eager to take additional effort, more willing to inform about the problems to management, and more productive (Avey, Palanski, & Walumbwa, 2011).

As the case may be, ethical leaders must perform functions of ‘moral managers’ who enhance the level of ethical conduct in employees by means of modelling desirable behaviour, and acknowledging consistent behaviour through rewards and punishments.

When all things are considered, it is possible to generalize that Rubin’s statement about the positive effects of ethical leader behaviour on both individual and organization effectiveness is true.

Blog 5: The benefits of studying leadership

There is a large number of discussions revealing the nature of leadership as a managerial phenomenon. However, no so many studies are specifically dedicated to the benefits of learning what leadership truly is and how it must be applied. In this connection, it is necessary to shed some light on the benefits of studying leadership in order to facilitate the implementation of the leadership skills in practice.

Thus, Studzinski (2011) stipulates that the key lessons of studying leadership are the following: 1) to do the job well; 2) to be ready to admit that you are wrong and change course of actions; 3) to be capable to listen to what people say; 4) to recognize personal strengths and weaknesses, successes and failures. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned points, it should be conceded that the recognition of personal strengths and weaknesses is a very valuable ability of a leader. Certainly, if the leader is self aware about his strong and weak sides, he will be more respected by the employees and much more excited about following.

Expatiating on the benefits of studying leadership, it should be clarified that the expertise in the domain of leadership helps to change both the personal life and public status. Such changes may be associated with the phenomenon of ‘the face of leadership’. Thus, according to Trichas and Schyns (2012), there is the direct nexus between the facial expression and the perception of leadership. The scholars ascertain that facial expressions make impressions of leadership. In other words, powerful leaders can be easily distinguished from other people through observation of their facial expressions. On these grounds, the scholars predict that the ‘understanding of what is inside the perceiver’s mind is significant for understanding leadership perceptions’ (Trichas, & Schyns, 2012).

In view of the above, Trichas and Schyns’s revelations may underlie the following twofold inference: 1) facial expressions of leaders make impact on the followers’ apprehension of their leader-likeness; 2) studying of leadership may result in the benefit of influencing the followers via consistent facial expressions.

Besides, the studying of leadership creates various possibilities in everyday life. A good leader knows how to motivate, why to motivate and how to empower employees so they feel involved, interested and passionate about their participation regardless of status. Excellent leadership may help to decrease absence and illness. The professional leader provides employees with assistance, positive attitude and feeling of self-confidence. The study of leadership may help to develop a wide range of valuable abilities to change the world and implement the innovation.

After everything has been given due consideration, it is possible to arrive at the conclusion that the lessons of leadership must be applied as the continuation of previous studies. The aforementioned lessons are crucial for the development of personal career because they are going to facilitate social interactions with people in the future.

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