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It is important to note here that the nature of our rejoinder to the international threat to aviation relies heavily on the vigor of the corporation among governments not to mention the private sector. The involvement each wants to incorporate in retreating the potential threats. This is because the aviation segment is motivated by gratis market competition. It is therefore important that airlines be obliged to uphold a prominence on expediency and limited costing thus realizing investment in expensive security mechanisms comparatively easier said than done. In various governments, there exists distended official procedures; there is also the lack of intelligence distribution, not to mention the normal routine of countering a threat which has already occurred instead of implementing measures to deal with the same prior to its occurrence (Robert, 1991). Taking into consideration of the above happenings and concerns, some effective measures have been put in place by different governments in respective countries. The similar measures which have been seen across the globe include:

  • There has been realization of additional security layers an example in the toughened cockpit entrances to the plane. This will immensely reduce the chances of the terror gangs gaining access to the aircraft. The more reduced chance of an un authorized aircraft access the more secure the aircraft might be. The doors might be in the form of code entry access or a special card for scanning the door. For one to gain access to all these it is therefore mandatory that each traveler passes through all the require procedures. The doors here also might be special in a way that when a passenger has gained access through the code system or using the card. It is very easy to open from the inside so that it gives a simple procedure and reduce the time of exit in case foamy danger sensed (Cassidy, 2009).
  •  Another strategy most nations have developed in their aviation sector is arming the pilots. Pilots here can be equipped with anti-missile protection gears. In the case of the poisoning the pilot or the aircraft can be equipped with gas cylinders and the anti fire protective gears which will aid in the protection in the case of fir outbreak. In addition the pilots can be accorded special training in the aircraft security so that he equips himself with the effective mechanisms which can be employed in case the aircraft experiences a scare while n the air. Another solution provided by the Federal Flight Deck Officer Program. The Homeland Security Act in the US allowed pilots to partake in the Federal Flight Deck Officer program. This is a program enabling pilots to receive training that will allow them to carry firearms while piloting commercial aircraft (Cassidy, 2009).
  • Various countries have also increased the presence of air marshals this is undertaken by the effective patrols by the security personnel. The security personnel here keep vigil at the most risky points while flying in the air. This can aid in the quickest response could there be any case of alarm. The patrol planes are fitted with communication gadgets which the security personnel use in the coordination of the aircrafts while in the air.
  • An overall increased wakefulness of the threat universally. Each nation at the moment is striving to make sure that the campaign of anti terrorism and that the same gospel is spread world wide. This can be realized through the various site available in the internet under which case internet at the moment is available everywhere. Countries world wide have also been creating books and journals so that the respective citizens get to be enlightened on the terror threats posed by most gangs. The reading materials can also point at the expected sources of the threats and the most effective ways of dealing with the same not to mention the various forms of the threats (Cassidy, 2009).
  • In a special case with The Federal Government which took a number of initiatives to counter   the impending dangers of the shoulder-fired missiles. The main Federal agency which was formed towards this initiative became to be known as the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS has formed an exceptional program office. This office was assigned with the duty of coming up with the most effective ways to help in dealing exclusively with the concern of shoulder-fired missiles, they must also come up with most effective methods of missile resistance methodology for the commercial aircraft systems. DHS there came up with the program the counter the missile menace, they realized this by developing a two-phase Systems Development and Demonstration commonly referred to as SD&D plan for antimissile coordination for the commercial aircraft industry and the whole transport system.   DHS also declared the investigation to the directed infrared countermeasures also known as DIRCM with the aid of other machinery which would aid in offering security towards MANPADS. This program is specifically not intended to grow new technologies, but it would rather transfer the already existing technologies to the commercial airline industry from the military environment already intended for the same. Starting with the first Phase   of the Counter-MANPAD, it had explore on the best solutions to be developed in countering these potential threats over a period of six months so that the commercial aircraft becomes safe heavens. In the course of this phase, the DHS has to investigate a number of exceptional concerns which includes dependability, cost, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification, continuation, and the various airport operational procedures. The second Phase   involves an 18-month archetype improvement program with the aid of the already existing technology this will be subjected to revelation tests and appraisal.Furthermore, the Department of Defense (DOD) has carried out numerous learning on the various options available in missile defense. These options are   ranging from the ground actions to high-tech, soaring cost to on-board missile protection scheme on a huge   aircraft. This technology is essential and mainly used to shield an aircraft from MANPAD assault. It is important to note that a number of missile defense mechanisms have been created and tested for use by the military. The DOD is functioning very intimately with DHS so that they develop missile defense mechanisms to be use in the effective running of the commercial aviation setting (Cassidy, 2009).
  •  The respective aircraft and the overall transport system should include sophisticated X-ray technology that can actually go through the clothing, and restructure its dragnet for making the realization of the potential terrorist threats. This X-ray technology should be in a position to detect any metal object or any harmful explosives whether in the clothes worn or even under the skin which may realize some planting of the same.
  •  Virtually all the nations should plan to commence implementing an annual screener certification program an example which started in October 2003. TSA for example in the us has already studied the aptitude of almost two-thirds of its screeners in an effort aimed at incorporating the results with a view of re-certification procedure for the whole screener labor force for the next several months to come.
  •  With still in the case of TSA, it is in the course of re-activating the Threat Image Projection (TIP) technology; this is endowed with the fact that there exist more threat images than were used by the FAA. The TIP system improved the screener functionality; its real functioning is in the sense that it places images of harmful objects on x-ray screens. Any threat detected I recorded in the process of carrying out the work. During actual operations and records whether screeners identify the threat.  at present, TSA has put in place more than 1,345 of the 1,795 TIP-ready X-ray machines commonly refer to as  TRXs , which are needed in the country to substitute unadventurous x-ray machines.
  • The nations can also impose the necessity that a gun be carried in a lockbox which should be in the possession of the pilot and not in a holster worn by the pilot; Other very important procedures nations should undertake here is the act of separating the pilots from any weapon carried in the process of the flight, the nations should also consider undertaking a lucid prequalification methodologies for those involved in the industry.
  • Nations should make use of Computer assisted prescreening system - CAPPS II These CAPPS II which are mainly   under development by TSA are proposed to make out terrorists with other dangerous individuals ahead of their boarding of commercial airplanes. CAPPS II will mainly make use of information obtained from the passengers for the duration of the reservation process. The CAPPS II technology conducts a risk appraisal for respective traveler using the passenger name record known as PNR using data and national security information thereby providing a “risk score” to TSAn (Cassidy, 2009).
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It’s important to note here that the data contained here should have an absolute security. This can be realized by:

    1. Restricting the Allowed Uses of PNR Data:   the U.S. Government’s position is always that DHS and DOD need the PNR data to finalize their border security   to fighting terrorism.  

    2. There should be Provision of sovereign Redress to travelers.  

   3. There should also be decrease in the Period of Data Retention. For example Data, if physically viewed in that opening 8 years, would be reserved for an extra 9 years for auditing reasons but not investigative purposes.  

    4. There should be effective Reduction in the number of PNR Data Fields Accessed. For example by the U.S. This tends to decrease the amount of PNR data fields accessed from 39 to 25.

In conclusion, the greatest challenge faced by the airline industry and the transport as a whole is the terrorism effect. The effect here can reduce the economy of the country because they are the main driving force behind this. This is why countries need to concentrate there resources in making sure that the transport industry is running on a daily basis.

Countries therefore need to develop very effective mechanism to make sure that they counter effective threats which might be posed by the terror gangs.

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