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As soon as the starting block of the CD-ROM is detected, it is ought to transfer the information to the memory in an adherent mode independently of the central processing unit, by the means of Direct memory access. Due to the organized track of block storage (blocks ordered in a spiral track) the head of the reading device would slide from one block to another without wasting any time. A hardware within the system which holds logical and other prescriptions, known as the central processor unit, creates a buffer to retain several blocks at a time, so that blocks may be delivered to memory as needed. The purpose of the memory buffer is to stay ahead of data displaying, as it would be used in rotation.

The following ways to optimize the performance of I/O transfer may be used:

  1. Catalogs or data sets may be positioned into separate libraries, exploiting the block size as needed for each. As the optimal block size for Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) catalogs and SAS data sets are not necessarily the same, catalogs and data sets might be put into various libraries. 6KB may be a appropriate physical block size on a hard device. Either a full-track or a half-track block size may be chosen, depending on which device the data library is stored.
  2. The optimal buffer size and buffer number for your data should be used. The values

BUFSIZE= and BUFNO= are the main factors that affect I/O performance. This is true when a direct access bound library processed sequentially. So the unit of I/O transfer is equal to BUFSIZE*BUFNO. Here, the page size for the data set is BUFSIZE, and BUFNO is the number of page buffers given for the data set.

1.Data compressing may be considered. This would significantly reduce I/O and disk space at the cost of adding to CPU time.

2. Data libraries can be placed in a hyperspace. This effective method makes it possible to hold a SAS data library in a hyperspace instead of on hard.

3.Treating temporary libraries as virtual I/O data sets. This approach works good with any temporary SAS data libraries.

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A signal that demands urgent consideration is an interrupt in a software. If a signal received from an external device (like a key on the keyboard or a printer), it is called a hardware interrupt. If a device needs to interrupt the CPU, it goes through the following steps (, 2012):

  1. The device applies voltage to the 8259 chip through its IRQ wire.
  2. The 8259 chip informs the CPU, by means of the INT wire, that an interrupt is pending.
  3. The CPU uses a wire called an INTA (interrupt acknowledge) to signal the 8259 chip to send a pattern of 1s and 0s on the external data bus. This information conveys to the CPU which device is interrupting.
  4. The CPU knows which BIOS to run.

When the problem develops in the processor itself, a software interrupt occurs. For example, if a command to divide a number by zero is given, this stands in conflict to arithmetic logics. Therefore, the computer aborts the process indicating an error.

A. The disk capacity is 11,000 sectors x 40,000 cylinders x 6 surfaces x 512 bytes = 1,351,680,000,000 bytes

B. If the disk is rotating at 4800 rpm, the time it takes to make one revolution is 1/4800 minute x 60 seconds/minute = 1/80 second. In that time, 1100 blocks of data, consisting of 512 bytes per block transferred. Therefore the data transfer rate = 512 x 1,100 x 80 = 45,056,000 bytes/second.

C. The maximum latency will occur when the head has just passed the beginning of a block, and a full rotation is necessary to reach the block again. Thus, the maximum latency for this disk is Tmax = 1/4800 min. or 0.0125 second. Tmin will occur when the head is just over the beginning of the block. Thus Tmin = 0.

The average latency time is the time that the disk takes to make ½ revolution. The time for ½ revolution = 1/80 sec./2 =  approximately 6.67 msec.

Object graphics is a graphics created by means of vector orientation system. A vector is a mathematical coordination system that requires a plain to be divided by two perpendicular lines, called  abscissa and ordinate, also known as XY system. A vector is a mathematical instruction within the XY coordination plain for a line with two end points within a 2D space. This system is commonly used in architecture, drawings or pictures. Vectors can be very accurate but they are inconvenient to be used in 3D space, as needed for games. That is also the reason why vector-based images cannot be for realistic pictures. The advantage of a vector is that it can be zoomed as much as wanted without accuracy losing, as opposed to pixel imaging.

In a pixel-based imaging, pictures are created on the level of pixels within a fixed-sized window. The size of the latter is determined by the number of extremely small elements throughout the window. For example, a standard display is composed of a 1024x768 pixels net. Each has its own color, depth or resolution determined. The advantages of pixel-based graphics are its relative simplicity, demand for small storage capacity, good looking on liquid crystal screens, well-available as for displays with limited palette. Its obvious lacks are determined by the details of the technique, such as: poor automatic data scaling (the picture needs to be re-drawn), image blinking if display of low quality. As each pixel must be stored separately, this can increase space demands.

An official web site of IQBio Company gives a wide range list of available biometric peripherals available today. These include an Automatic Finger Placement Detection technology that automatically checks for the presence of a finger, OptiMouse that ensures quality fingerprint scanning of difficult fingers, Keyboard that that automatically checks for the presence of a finger to turn on and scan your finger as soon as you touch the sensor, Ultrasonic Proximity Sensor automates the locking of the PC when you step away and allows keystrokes to be sent when you approach the computer.

In the future, brain-controlling of the computer with a brain computer interface will not only ease the practice for disabled, but might faster serve for the militaries to control the stuff. An example of a biometric interface may be a sensor to collect the data of a soldier’s physiological well-being. Digital paper that would simulate real white paper is able to save nature resources considerably. A flexible display could be of use for reading big-format newspapers. Telepresence is a way of remote presence of an operator at the target location. Today DaVinci surgical system is in use already, but un the future these devices could eliminate the need for human presence in any hot point, such as radiation polluted area, mined field, or the far space. Reality will be augmented with a heads-up display, wearable retinal display, or contact lens. Voice control in Internet search can make information research even faster than today. With gesture interpretation, movements with the hands, or other body parts are recognized by a computer as commands. Technology is to be controlled with the head and eye tracking technique.

The next generation biometric devices

There’s no denying that next generation biometric devices as computer peripherals are in close reality to the human.

As Wikipedia notes, “A properly designed decision support system (DSS) is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from a combination of raw data, documents, and personal knowledge, or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions”. (www.decisionsupportsystem, 2012) notes that “There are many effective decision support systems that can carry out the requirements”. As in any research field, raw material should be collected first; this is done through investigating the market, sales data and others. Once the data collected, it needs to be stores and formatted properly using appropriate software. At the same time, data must be available for presentation or report analysis. As soon as all material classified, a micro strategy may be worked out. Here, methodologies, studying tools, intelligence reporting must be adequately used. As noted, “This provides the end users with great reports, data analysis and monitoring which for large and small companies – saves lots of man and women hours. Also micro strategy support systems provide companies with analytical, monitoring platform and reporting tools that form the basis of any such dashboard tools.”

Power DJ (2002) classifies DSS into several categories:

• communication-driven DSS that supports more than one person working on a shared task, like Microsoft's NetMeeting

• data-driven DSS or data-oriented DSS provides access to and manipulation of internal company data or external data

• document-driven DSS manages, raw material in a number of electronic formats

• knowledge-driven DSS proposes problem-solving solution as drived of facts, rules or procedures,

•a model-driven DSS exploits various statistical tools, this kind system makes use of parameters given by users to assist decision makers in managing a situation, they are not necessarily data-intensive (dicodess is an example).

Nursing Applicability

Open access nursing research and review articles states that nursing evidence – based research is “An integration of the best evidence available, nursing expertise, and the values and preferences of the individuals, families, and communities who are served”. This is an important clinical decision making approach, which implicates both clinical knowledge with skills and best available clinical evidence be integrated. This source indicates that within the nursing research either systemic overviews or evidence-based guidelines be studied. This is very close to what was done in this coursework as collecting appropriate data, followed by its storage, systematization, and subsequent analysis with predicting outcomes is actually a decision support system mechanism in process. Once, the work done properly and correct deductions done, best evidence best practice may be implemented. What will be the parameter of effectiveness is the change in practice to follow.

The key point to understanding  the strategies  of evidence – based research is that this is not a mere research Conduction, but a self-educational challenge. It is emphasized that facilitating implementation of practice changes, make practice routine, creating enthusiasm for it are to be combined in order for “clinical inquiry to become a habitual part of  practice”. A good program should carry organizational supports for a clinical inquiry, efficient and functional mechanism for practice activities. The strategies for making evidence – based practice a part of everyday care attitude of nurses to it change.

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