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Science has become a common issue in the modern world. Nowadays, people can explain most of natural phenomenon by means of science. It helps people to understand the existence of the Universe. From the ancient times, when science was not developed, all natural phenomena was not clear, people were searching the ways to explain everything what was happening in their life. It has become a common fact now that the Universe has made up of matter and energy. People cannot live without energy. Atoms and molecules comprise matter. Energy makes atoms and molecules to move, i.e. they are always in motion, and this process never stops. Be in motion means that atoms and molecules constantly vibrate back and forth, or bump into each other. This motion of atoms and molecules creates heat – a form of energy, which exists in all matters. This form of energy is also called thermal energy. Matter has heat energy even in space, though very small amount of it.

By increasing the speed of atoms and molecules, the substance gets heat. Energy makes substances to heat, for example, when people are cold, they try to move faster in order to get warmer. Different kinds of energy may be used to make a substance to heat: electrical, light, chemical, mechanical, nuclear, sound and thermal (Strong, 2010). These are only a few examples of different types of energy, which can be converted into heat or thermal energy. Energy can change its forms. Mechanical energy, for example, may be converted into thermal in football. When a player bounces a ball, it is heated. Thermal energy can be also transferred from one object to another causing them to heat up. For example, when something is heated, like a pan of water, for example, it causes the heat. In everyday life, people use such objects like electric stoves, toasters, hair dryers, and others. When these objects are switched on, electric energy is converted into thermal.

The research asserts that there are various sources of heat. It is a well-known fact that the sun is a fusion reactor for this consideration. Everybody can feel the heat from the sun on a hot summer day. Nuclear reaction helps the Sun to produce heat. Nuclear reaction from the Sun is now used by technologists. They can also create nuclear reactions through fission, where atoms split into smaller ones.  Controlled nuclear fission is used in nuclear reactors. Physical work like friction is another source of heat. Burning things, electric current through a resistive wire, exothermic chemical reaction, for example, muscle movement and most fissionable materials are different sources of heat. The research asserts that natural sources of heat energy like sun, fire and oven does less harm to the environment than the process of using them. It should be mentioned that not all natural sources of heat are renewable (Strong, 2010). These sources have differences between each other, for example, they may vary in their reliability, geographical availability, cost and ease of use.

Heat is passed on between objects by means of different temperatures. There is a difference between heat and temperature. Thus, heat is thermal energy, and temperature is the measurement of kinetic energy of particles, which compose the matter. Temperature causes things to change. When heat flows into material, for example, the temperature can rise and even the change of state may be occurred. The melting of snow, for instance, may change it into water. Therefore, temperature difference measures hot and cold on a scale. Another difference between heat and temperature is as follows: temperature is an intensive property, and heat is known as an extensive property. This means that due to the intensive property of temperature, the amount of substance does not change the specific trait. Thus, the boiling point of water is 100 degrees, what does not depend from amount of water, i.e. 1 or 20 liters of water boil at the same temperature. An extensive property of heat, on the other hand, depends on the amount present. The amount of heat produced by 1 liter of water differs from the amount of heat produced by 20 liters of boiling water.

Being the apparent effect of heat, temperature is a degree of motion of particles within a system. The higher is a degree of vibration or motion of particles, the higher is the temperature. Though heat and temperature are not the same things, they are closely related. For this reason these two concepts are often confused. In order to realize the difference between heat and temperature it is important to take into consideration that changes in heat create changes in temperature (Strong, 2010). The temperature of the object rises when heat is higher, and it lowers when heat is removing. Regarding the relationship between heat and temperature, the available research acknowledges that a change in state does not involve a change in temperature. The standard example of ice changing into water proves that the temperature of the ice before melting is the same as that of the water after melting.

To summarize, heat is the actual energy of an object that is characterized by the movement of its atoms and molecules, which are constantly moving and jiggling around, hitting each other and other objects. Atoms and molecules move faster when the energy is up. Even objects with very low temperature have some heat energy because of the movement of their atoms and molecules. People cannot live without heat. Matter has heat energy even in space, though very small amount of it.

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