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The need to include a multi-disciplinary social science driven curriculum that balances the vocational and action orientation with that of a liberal reflective orientation

Multi-disciplinary can be defined as a team of professionals who are expertise in certain field providing a more comprehensive way of dealing with problems facing their clients, they include social workers administrators, medical providers and employment  counselors who meet clients ensuring that they are connected to resources available (Morrison & O’Mahony, 2003). Social science is a branch of science that deals with social cultural human behaviors aspects that include sociology, criminology, and social psychology. It should be included to maintain the discipline among curriculum by ensuring there is respect between students taking the courses making sure they work according to the rules that govern them.

Explain two reasons for visitors/strangers to be treated with suspicion and fear in ancient times.

Etymology means the study of a words meaning and there history and where they originated from. The association between guest/stranger with the enemy in derivation of etymology of hospitality is that they both have hidden intentions which are not known by the hosts. In ancient times visitors/strangers were treated with suspicion due to risks they may cause like trying to get secretive information from the communities making them prone to attacks. In addition religious and cultural practices differed making it impossible to mingle with one another thus suspicion showed up (Morrison & O’Mahony, 2003).

Discuss whether you believe hospitality and sex are linked in any way in contemporary commercial hospitality provision. Provide examples to illustrate your argument

Hospitality and sex in ancient society were linked in many ways whereby guests or visitors were to be treated with care and through that entertainment was a key factor. According to Nigel (2007) ancient society’s women were supposed to entertain the guests and some demanded sex as one of major entertainment according to what entertainment means to them. A good example is the Aztecs time whereby Cihuacalli (House of Women) was legalized place of prostitutes that provided men with sexual services from Babylon. Also the Militta sanctuary (Aphrodite or Nana/Anahita) that had sex with foreigners showing a sign of hospitality accompanied with a symbolic price in ancient Rome and Greece. In hospitality visitors are treated well for many reasons whereby clients insist on services such as sex, mostly with the main aim being trade sex has been regarded as the main and highest form of pleasure given to clients. In addition to that Vemant (1980) talked about it putting forward early Greek spiritual rites contradict and associated War and sex as accomplishment in the particular life of human beings.  Because of social identity and hospitality men and women temporarily participated in nature of opposite sex for example sex was the main source of showing guest you appreciated them and through it they find pleasure more than any type of entertainment (Nigel, 2007). In these case women and men who offer sex for hospitality to the guests were available to maintain the status of place and its services and hospitality to clients or visitors around the globe. To ensure that guests are treated with the choice of their own entertainment class and the term hospitality where others believe that without having sex they are not satisfied and the level of hospitality was not measuring to their standards makes it a component in offering hospitality to guests. To conclude on these sex and hospitality link in some cases through entertainment and demands of guests and clients in offering services to customers (Nigel, 2007).

Commoditization of hospitality creates a natural tension between hosts/severs and guests in terms of consumption, the arguments for and against this statements are;

Commoditization is defined as the dilution of sectors in the markets internal separation with competitive nuances favoring mass market where consumer behavior is determined by price. Through these the industry competition mode moves to alternative ways of value building from underlying innovation and commoditized product (Nigel, 2007). In hospitality commoditization may affect guests in both positive and negative ways. One of negative sides of hospitality commoditization is the pricing war. When there is proliferation of market products until the sector reaches commoditization point market saturates and competition intensifies thus perceived distinction on brands and services vanish making the guests to base their purchasing ideas and decisions on price. On the side consumers benefit from hospitality commoditization where by competition to host them they search for the favoring ones. Services became cheap to the guests to attract them due to competition in the market thus benefiting the visitor. It also allows guests to enjoy services in cheap ways after desperation of hosts. (Braitwaite, 2004)

Nonetheless commoditization of hospitality can be of big harm to both the host and the guest. When services are cheap they tend to be unworthy for human consumption and use unlike expensive ones. Due to services given to in low prices to the guests the hosts may tend to substantiate services whereby the guests will receive counterfeit consumption requirements for example food with low quality preparation exposing them to health risks. Poor response to anything a guests when they urgently need services to clients thus risking the visitor (Nigel, 2007). In addition to that guests security may be at risk for the host may turn and attack them in some circumstances like when they want to threaten them from visiting other guest houses and come to theirs. It can cause lose of jobs to other hosts due to monopolistic competition of hosts and guests to one perfect competition whereby both the consumer or guests and host compete for the favoring side and through that there is risk which if not careful they will succumb to it.

Debates about the impact of globalization on patterns of food consumption

Globalization is the process by which there is integration and interaction among people, governments of different nations and companies that are driven by investment and international trade through the aid of informational technology. In this matter consumption of food patterns is affected by globalization, therefore trade companies providing or manufacturing food sell them to the countries they interact with (O’Connor, 2005). By the factor of friendship between them they are given chance of entering countries market distributing their products all over thus affecting the consumption patterns. Consumers will differ whereby some will opt for new products on market while others go for the usual old products. In conclusion when market is inflated by different types of products due to competition consumption patterns is affected at large.

Different attributes that is necessary to succeed

The first attribute you need to have is the self discipline whereby he must be able to be a role model to staff members and the community around. Through self discipline the manager should hand the financial matters regarding the hotel with caution not to misappropriate the funds and these requires self discipline. Also by motivating workers he should keep ensure that time management is his priority thus needs self discipline (Jayawardena, 2000). Also the manager should faithful meaning that the manager must ensure that he keeps his or her promises to the entire company e.g. fulfilling his duties by promoting the hard working to create competition among them thus motivating them to work hand in hand. Lastly the manager should be understanding to all the staff and be willing to listen and help them according to what they need or ask for example when one of the staff is sick should be offered company services by even taking them to hospital and other individual care required by them(Jayawardena, 2000).

Service encounter is described as a performance in the literature? Provide an example of a particular kind of per formative labor

Per formative labor is defined as theatrical performances and emotional management required by employees who are particularly in service industry and workplace is construed similar to stage. Service encounter is described as a performance in literature because it implies much on activities and it takes much of performance than service (O’Connor, 2005). An example of per formative labor is auditioning, cast members, onstage, and the backstage. Here workers need to know that the business is on stage and there work is theatre. The work of the person staging experience is very crucial to ensure experience remains in customer’s memory. Through it performance workers are urged to engage customers in their work for their work depends on it. The work generally depends on elements like emotional labor to perform the duties. Emotional labor refers to the way workers convey emotions as part of their work roles appearing as though the emotions are held deeply within them. (Braitwaite, 2004)

Emotional labor is all about acting whereby it entails going positive or negative emotions which are conveyed in the process of acting performing. Acting is difficult such that it needs through rehearsal on emotions display to meet the purpose and maybe the emotional laborers feels the opposite of the emotions required to give out (O’Connor, 2005). In addition to that it is also associated to delivery of services that is associated with commercial transactions and the link is so close to the quality of service delivery that display positive emotions which is important component being associated to quality service or goods supplied in course of service transaction. (Braitwaite, 2004)

Discuss this statement with relevant examples to illustrate your points

Cultural practices differ from one community to another these contributes to guests and customers to have different views on better services offered regarding to what they know. In some occasions some of the guests have cultural that when they visit a guest room or restaurants. In a case where culture is controlled by religion the communities take with them all expectations of how a customer must be treated. A good example is a certain community in western Africa called bango where women are not allowed to mingle with men and share or use the same materials unless they are married. In their case when they visit a place with different cultures like U.S where women don’t have boundaries with their men thus bonding freely. These guests mostly expect when they visit other places to receive the same treatment as they get when in there community.  Example of expectations that different guests differ with or prefer mostly is on meals and accommodations. The Jews always wash their hands before meals and when they visit some places like china where chop sticks is the main way of handling food they undergo difficulties thus going against their expectations of customer services.

Also Islamic communities have cultures where women are expected to cover their face and whole body especially in Arabic countries so when a woman comes in front of them uncovered they consider that as going against their religious customs and cultural rules thus conflicting on how they expect to be served. Lastly in many communities parents don’t share rooms with their children for respect purpose but when they are assigned one room to share it brings sense of disrespect thus going against what they expected. To conclude cultural contradiction makes customer services differ from one place to the other making it complex in handling all customers according to what they expect.

Hospitality reception work in conceptualized as a feminized practice as it involves displaying female qualities and performing activities that women generally undertake (Nvarra 1980; Adi and Guerrier 2003).

Discuss whether you agree or disagree with this statement, and provide examples to back-up your response

On reception of guests women have qualities on it more than men. First if the place is full of men visitors the chemistry calls for women receptionist (Harris, Harris & Baron, 2003). In most cases women are regarded to have a soft and gently heart unlike there counterpart. They know how to treat people and believe in there gender to attract people. Also guest’s especially male ones believe women receptionists giving them a sense of security due to what is seen as weaker gender. In addition to that women’s complexion is seen as entertaining as compared to male ones and by these they are regarded as good receptionists. When we talk about doing light jobs women appear in picture making them the best candidates in working as receptionists. Men on the other sides cannot offer some services such as entertainment; rarely do they accept being asked to do some things that are referred as women’s work (Harris, Harris & Baron, 2003). Culture also plays a big role in ensuring that men do not take that position of having best qualities of good receptionists. In most cases our culture bounds many men from doing some jobs  and by these jobs like this are seen as women  kind of jobs  making men to feel inferior working as receptionists . Nature also makes women qualities on the work more appropriate than men where physical factors such as facial expressions which allows women to do better than women on the job. To conclude on the issue receptions can be done by both sexes but due to believes women get the higher rank meaning that they have most qualities than their counterparts who are men.

Describe using your imagination what you think will be the innovations that offer greater customer satisfaction in the year 2020, in any one or all of these areas: accommodation, food and beverage service, entertainment and security.

According to (Braitwaite, 2004) innovation is the introduction of new ideas with the aim of improving to something that already exists. In the year 2020 innovations on security and entertainment is one big issue to the customers or clients. According to my imaginations customers need much security in entertainment areas thus innovation of sophisticated security gadgets that can detect incase of danger for example when fire or explosion erupt in entertainment places customers must be secured from any harm and dangers of explosives thus creation of detectors that alert them when there is danger around the place. In accommodation customers must be provided with services that are faster and effective and through inventing a luxurious way of dealing with disaster incase of any service required. By ensuring that communication between customers and management tops in priority list and by these inventing different ways of communication that are fast in reaching customers and attending to their needs e.g. internet services where customers  communicates directly to them when service is required.                                      

On the other hand dealing with food the services offered should base on health matters that should make customers feel safe through servicers they receive. Braitwaite, (2004) further notes that innovation of colorful materials used in serving food with decorations creating attractive image on the given services. On the hand beverage and other drinks must be accompanied with unique way of serving and should contain appetizing taste with balanced ingredients in them. In addition to that entertainment in accommodation places should be a centre stage on the innovations for customer comfort in the year 2020 and through these a customer must be entertained the way he or she likes thus innovation of different entertainments such as creation of a software and installation of each and every type of entertainment meeting the needs of customers. For security also customers property must be safe each time they came for the services and by that innovations such as storage facilities must be of high standards with sophisticated modern protective machines both from damages and theft e.g. asylums detectors and automatic eviction doors. The innovations will enhance and boost our lifestyles into the best in the year 2020.

Code: Sample20

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