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Administrative privileges refer to the various rights, powers and control of a computer administrator. These privileges allow the administrator to make system changes such as changing configuration settings, installing new software, modifying files and folders, and changing login passwords. Administrator has more privileges compared to other users, which are only able to make minor changes. The principle of the least privilege refers to the rationale of restricting access to the least level that allows standard functioning (Tavani, 2004). It provides users’ accounts the least amount of users’ rights and privileges that enable them to carry out their work. This principle is used to reduce any potential damage that would occur due to the security breaches affecting computer systems and networks. It is used to ensure stability of the system and easiness of system deployment.     

A network administrator has to manage and maintain computer networks of an organization. Furthermore, he installs, configures, monitors, schedules and maintains the network infrastructure utilized by an organization. Important ethical issues arise when assigning administrator privileges to the network administrators. They guarantee information privacy, ensure protection of intellectual property, equal accessibility to network resources, and high standards of professionalism. The network administrators usually have access to the information and files stored in the file servers of an organization and play a major role in ensuring that computer networks are available to all users and protected from the security breaches (Migga, 2005). It is, therefore, important for the network administrators to be individuals of the high ethical morals and standards that will not use their administrator privileges to perform unethical activities within the network of an organization.         

Security configurations deployed on the computer networks can be utilized by the network administrators for unethical purposes. The network administrators configure, deploy and monitor various security configurations on the computer networks.  Since they are aware of the security configurations that are put in place, the network administrators can disable these configurations and damage or destroy various files intentionally. The network administrators could also allow users an unauthorized network access, namely access to the critical information about an organization. Such information can be used to undertake criminal activities against that organization. They can also sell information on the security configurations used in the organization to the outside parties. They may, in turn, steal an intellectual property and secrets of an organization and use them to blackmail its directors (Migga, 2011).      

It is important for the administrators to document configuration changes that they make. The two security policies that should be adopted to ensure that Windows Server 2008 administrators document configuration changes that they make are stating the person authorizing the change and providing a functional explanation of all configuration changes they make. It is important to note that all configuration changes should be carried out by the required authority. No configuration changes should be carried out if a person has not the authority to allow such changes to take place. A functional explanation should be provided concerning the configuration changes. The explanation should also state the technical elements that were affected and the expected changes that should occur on each of these technical elements. In addition, all changes made should be updated frequently to ensure that all documentation provided indicates the current state of the Windows server.     

The network administrators have various administrative privileges that enable them to have access to the files and information stored in the servers of an organization. In order to protect sensitive information and prevent the network administrators from unethical access, various checks and balances ought to be implemented. These include developing a comprehensive ethics guide, carrying out regular network security audits, developing a network security policy that outlines people authorized to access information, and installing various user identification systems that enable only authorized individuals to access confidential information stored in the servers (Migga, 2005). 

Code: Sample20

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