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Purposes of the organization was to promote the unity and solidarity of the African states, to intensify and coordinate the cooperation of these states so as to achieve better life for people of Africa, to defend the sovereignty , integrity and independence. Lastly, to eradicate colonization of all forms was another purpose. The leaders of Africa met in Addis Ababa in May 1963 and the found Organization of Africa Unity (OAU) thereby signing a Charter of Unity. Earlier before this a delegate of twenty six students who demanded for political constitution for Africa with a Pan-African parliament, pan African executive and public service. The Pan –African ideal that was nurtured by black Americans like W.E.B. Du Bois in 1900 struck a deep chord among African living outside Africa. Nkrumah was the leader of OAU with the support of many students. The Charter of Unity of 1963 was a long term commitment of Africa’s new leader to common defense in military, economic and political defense meant to be unity diverse states foreign firms exploited resources saw the importance accrued from Pan African scale. Nkrumah returned from Europe and North America to his native Ghana after accepting British and French model of territorial decolonization state by state and thereby balkanization of Africa. He  rejected a merger  with Guinea and Mali when Toured  Ahmed had suggested it. The seduction of nation and nation –state turned out to be strong. Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa prime minister of Nigeria was quick to respond 1n 1963 to a talk of  United States of Africa hence he also believed that freedom would come throughNation state.There was division between African nation states in attitudes to ex-colonial powers, the expatriate companies and regional grouping. Furthermore, was the division of language between Anglophone, Francophone, Lusophone and Arabic Africa with British, French Portuguese and Levantine companies. These divisions were running sore in 1980s and early 1990s for instance Us support for beleaguered Mobutu in Zaire. African, unlike Europeans or Chinese can speak at least two languages such as French, Portuguese or Arabic. Amilar Cabral liberation leader of Guinea Bissau recognized ambiguous influence (both attracting and repelling)   of European culture in on the middle Africa. The Marxist states attended the meeting of non-aligned countries in Lusaka in 1970 and continued it in Georgetown in 1972 and in Algiers in 1973 and subsequently every three years in Liberia and Zaire.A majority of  African states have at one time or another been brought to under military rule since their independence. This is associated with single party rule. Botswana, Gambia and Mauritius have retained competitive multiparty system since independence.All African states moved away from democracy to authoritarianism in 1960s.some of these countries are Kenya Tanzania and Zambia in which opposition, and independence of trade unions as well as cooperatives were curbed. The reason for this authorization lies in corruption power. USA USSR and South Africa aided and abetted  the maintenance of power by authorization. Since independence  leaders embarked upon nation building within confines of old regime. African states boundary were adhered to and ethnic differences accommodated.All forms of African government with African rulers have adopted a state-centered operation approach to solving economic problems by taking control of the natural resources like minerals which had been developed.  Patronage that was available to Government was the gift of jobs in public service and in parastatal.The African governments accepted IMF and the world bank condition for loans and the other financial support but they suffered two failures: failure to nourish a pluralist society and failure create a technocratic civil service capable of challenging the government and designing civil economic policies. The result of conjecture of worsening economic climate  and erosion of living standards with the disintegrative effects of the world bank was the main turmoil of 1990. .  

OAU was founded and the African heads of states met regularly every year at each new capitals where they agreed to protect about surviving areas of colonial rule in the continent like apartheid in South Africa thereby settling disputes  and common problems. The Lagos plan had the objectives of achieving regional food self-sufficiency through domestic food production, safe drinking water ,clothing ,housing health care ,education and transport, elimination or alleviation of poverty and achieving integration through national and collective self-reliance.

Code: Sample20

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