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The article under review focuses on the state of cancer screening. Based on the article, despite the high level of awareness about cancer screening, primary care is still sub-optimal. The implementation of the Every Woman Matters program was intended to help low-income earners in  their search of cancer-screening services (Backer et al., 2005). The program employed the GAPS model in identifying and reducing barriers to cancer screening services.

Based on the study findings, many commonalities regarding individual practices were noticed. Main differences emerged depending on the practice contexts. However, out of the seven cases, only two showed differences in the practices. It is notable that the program employed a case study approach in addressing the concern. In the process, seven basic care practices took part in the study. A nurse worked as a research assistant in order to collect data from each intervention site. Based on the evidence adduced in the article, the program was critical towards attaining the target goals. However, it is remarkable that despite the implementation of the program, the levels of seeking the cancer screening services remain low. The reason for such inefficiencies could be attributable to the failure to adopt distinct approaches to identify and address case specific concerns. This view is held since adopting a single common approach to the issue might not have paved the way for yielding the expected results since various cases depict different characteristics. 

Summary of Two Prevention Programs

The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) extend cervical and breast cancer screening, in addition to diagnostic services to uninsured, underserved and low-income women. CDC created NBCCEDP following the passing of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Mortality Prevention Act in 1990. The NBCCEDP funds all the States in the US in regards to cancer screening.

The program has proved successful since its inception. For instance, from 1991, the program has funded screening services for over four hundred women. In the process, the program has catered for roughly ten million cervical and breast cancer screening tests. At the same time, the program has facilitated the diagnosis of over 55 thousand breast cancers, 140 thousand premalignant cervical lesions and 3 thousand invasive cervical cancers. In the pursuit of its objectives, the program adopted effective strategies. The strategies include: management, diagnostic and screening services, data management, quality improvement and quality assurance, evaluation, professional development, partnerships and recruitment (Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Similarly, the NBCCEDP collaborates in making referrals. Thus, complementary efforts are significant in the success of the program. The key partners are national organizations, the State, as well as community partners.

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The other critical program that is put under review is the Screening Mammography Program (SMP). The SMP was initiated in 1988 by the BC Agency (BC Cancer Agency, 2012). The main objective was to lower the number of deaths arising from cancer by initiating an early detection program. The agency is renowned based on reviewing its screening policy from time to time. The essence of such reviews rests on the need to ensure that the agency operates under up to date practices.

The program offers regular screening (breast x-rays) to women between age 40-79. The results from the mammograms are sent to the persons or their healthcare providers. The agency also sends reminders to the participants. Thus, the strategy is to ensure that no participant misses any screening. The agency also collects and keeps its statistics to facilitate the monitoring of the progress made. Such data is equally critical in improving the knowledge on the disease.

It emerges that collaboration with various actors is a key success factor. Similarly, the development of effective strategies is critical. Another important characteristic is focusing on the vulnerable members of the society. Just like the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), the Screening Mammography Program (SMP) adopts strategies that are designed to facilitate the attainment of the set goals. The similarity between the two programs in terms of characteristics centers on the monitoring of progress that is registered. The latter program does this by recording statistics of the people who are served.

Strategies Proposed for Creating a More Effective Prevention Program

As a nurse leader in charge of developing the program, I would endeavor to introduce some changes to ensure that the program is successful. The first issue I would consider is the approach used in addressing the concern. I understand that cancer is a serious ailment that requires utmost care. Various demographics show discrepancies in behavior. Consequently, I would adopt a distinct approach to each case. Such an approach would allow me to understand specific issues that affect each sub-group. Aforementioned discovery would facilitate the adoption of unique measures to encourage women to seek the screening services more often that they do. Similarly, I would propose the borrowing of some of the strategies that are employed by the other programs. In particular, I would advocate for the adoption of the strategy of sending reminders to the program participants. Such an approach would promote the chances of every participating member turning up for any scheduled appointments.


  1. Backer, E.L., Geske, J.A., McIlvain, H.E., Dodendorf, D.M., & Minier, W.C. (2005). Improving female preventive health care delivery through practice change: An every woman matters study. University of Nebraska Medical Center.
  2. BC Cancer Agency. (2012).The screening mammography program (SMP). Retrieved from
  3. Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2012). The national breast and cervical cancer early detection program (NBCCEDP). Retrieved from
Code: Sample20

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