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For a long time, access to clean water and sanitation has been a very big challenge in the globe. According to statistics, many people across the globe have limited access to clean drinking water and clean water for other domestic uses. In addition, many people have limited access to good sanitation across the globe. Access to clean water and good sanitation has been a major problem especially in developing countries. To address these issues, several international bodies have endeavored to provide philanthropic assistance especially in less developed countries to help in providing clean drinking water and sanitation for all. Proper access to drinking water and sanitation has attracted more attention because it has become a major threat to the lives of many people globally. Poor access to clean water and sanitation contributed to many deaths mainly because of illnesses that are caused by contaminated water. Therefore, this paper studies how supply of clean drinking water and proper sanitation across the globe and disease caused by unsafe water and sanitation. The paper also studies various initiatives that have been introduced by various humanitarian bodies with the aim of promoting supply of clean drinking water and establishment of proper sanitation services.

Normally, human body comprises of 70% water, and a person can die if he/she lacks water to drink due to dehydration within a very short time. On the other hand, consumption of unsafe water can also contribute to complications in the human body, which can even result to death. Therefore, clean drinking water is an essential product in the human body. Lack of clean water and proper sanitation services have adverse effects on public health across the globe. According to statistics, diarrhea kills about 2 million people globally every year, with the majority being children especially those below the age of 5 years (McMann, 2011). Moreover, in many parts of the globe, people who supposedly have “improved service” mostly suffer from problems related to water quality as well as service reliability.

On the other hand, proper sanitation is also deficient among many people in the globe. Lack or proper sanitation have mainly been characterized with worldwide shortfalls in indispensable access to a hygienic toilet, and deficient service provision and household standards (Bourne, 1994). For instance, wastewater is usually limited by only concentrating on collection of domestic liquid waste, with very little or no investment on the treatment of waste before it is disposed into water courses. Poor people in many countries suffer from such low quality of services.

According to statistics from UNICEF and World Health Organization Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (2012), about 2.5 billion people, which is equivalent to 35% of people from developing countries lack access to effective sanitation facilities. In addition, more that 780 million people of people living in developing countries have no access to clean water, and they have consistently used unsafe drinking water sources. Insufficient access to safe and clean drinking water, poor hygiene practices and sanitation services has been the major causes of high deaths and sickness among children. Many children lose their lives due to illness contributed by use of unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation every day across the globe. This is most common in developing countries due to their inability of their federal governments to provide clean water for use, as well as sanitation services. This has resulted to diminished opportunities for many people and impoverishment.

According to UNICEF, poor sanitation, lack of clean water as well as hygiene has other adverse effects on people across the globe. In some developing countries, children especially girls are mostly denied their right to quality education since the school they attend lack decent and private sanitation facilities. In other countries, women spent most of their time fetching water at the expense of other vital duties that are essential in improving their standard of living. In addition, lack of clean drinking water and sanitation has adverse effects on poor farmers as well as wage earners. As a matter of facts, poor wage earners and farmers especially in developing countries are less productive because of frequent illness contributed use of unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation. In turn, this has a negative effect on the economy of such countries in the sense that, national economies suffer high health expenditures and health systems are overwhelmed due to increased cases of sickness (WHO/UNICEF joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation, 2008).

As a result of serious problems associated with lack of clean water and improved sanitation, UNICEF has played a very critical role in improving sanitation facilities and water supplies in communities and schools in about 90 countries in which it operates. Furthermore, it has played a considerable role in promoting safe hygienic practices. Their initiative has been successful in many countries because UNICEF works closely with communities, families, like-minded organizations as well as governments. All WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) programmes initiated by UNICEF are aimed at attaining Millennium Development Goal for sanitation and water. The main aim is to ensure that by 2015, many people across the globe will have access to basic sanitation and clean water.

According to WHO (World Health Organization), about 6.3% of all deaths experienced in the globe are caused by limited access to clean drinking water, proper sanitation and hygiene services and water management practices, which are vital in reducing the spread of waterborne diseases (World Health Organization, 2002). According to World Health Organization, sustainable development cannot be realized without water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). This is because without proper sanitation services, clean water and hygiene, people are less productive due to constant illnesses. This has a negative impact on the national economy of a nation, thus slowing the rate of development.

In addition, a report by United Nations (UN) reveals that more than 14,000 people die every day from waterborne diseases. These deaths are mainly caused by infections such as intestinal worms, diarrheal, malaria, lymphatic filariasis and trachoma (Barzilay, & Weinberg, 2009). Children are more vulnerable to poor sanitation and unsafe water. The rates of deaths and disabilities related to unsafe water and poor sanitation are believed to be twice as high in children below the age of 14 years. According to Statistics from World Health Organization, about 5000 children die every day from preventable diseases related to water and sanitation, and 90% of them die at an age below 5 years (Persson, 2002).

Numerous diseases such as diarrhea among other tropical diseases are contracted as a result of human contact with infected water, and this is the main cause of illnesses and deaths annually. In addition, flies, mosquitoes, and other vectors, which normally breed in water also contribute to many illnesses and even deaths. Establishment of proper drainage systems   and good sewerage play a vital role in eliminating breeding grounds for such vectors. Furthermore, water can be treated in order to eliminate bacteria that are found in tainted water.

According to USAID, there is an urgent need to safeguard and protect water resources to ensure the wellbeing of people as well as the environment across the globe. As a result, USAID have invested a substantial amount of funds in sanitation and water supply mainly in developing countries, which are mainly faced with the problem of unsafe water and lack of proper sanitation. USAID has endeavored to these issues by establishing essential projects that are aimed at improving the supply of clean water and sanitation. The major aim of such projects is to enhance the health of people by reducing the chance of contracting diseases, which are mainly associated with contaminated water and poor sanitation.

Code: Sample20

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