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The book touches upon two main points of our everyday life: what the decision is and how it should be treated. Food is a part of cultural studies and it plays a very important role in the cultural development of any nationality or country. The authors give their personal points of view on the history of food within the framework of cultural studies. Moreover, the book also gives the gender approach to eating as well as ethics and moral attitude to food and vegetarianism as a current trend of food.

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While vegetarianism has frequently been seen as an ethical approach to food consumption, it has also been seen as “an exercise in the management of anxiety”. Similar points could also be made about an ethical preference for organic or locally produced food. The discussion of vegetarianism as a specific example of moral and ethical food consumption, therefore, needs to be understood within a wider context of food scares and anxieties.

In my opinion, the book represents a profound vision of the problem of food and nutrition in modern society. Moreover, the authors paid enough attention to the consideration of food as a part of the cultural studies, thus meaning that the food is not only eating but the whole culture with its strict rules and norms. Despite it, the authors did not give me, as a reader, the full picture of what food is within the frameworks of cultural studies. Thus, several questions arose:

What is the further development of food culture within the frameworks of cultural studies?

What are the perspectives of vegetarianism and how does it correspond to different world cultures?

Food and You: A Guide to Healthy Habits for Teens

The book gives the answers to urgent health problems, such as obesity, the necessity of exercise, fundamental of a healthy diet, etc. The authors of the book Marjolijn Bijlefeld, Sharon Zoumbaris indicate that modern society provokes inadvertent obesity among the population, especially among children, promoting consumption of a high-calorific food with big maintenance of fats, and, at the same time, due to a technical progress stimulating an inactive way of life. These social and technogenic factors promote the growth of obesity rates during the previous decades. Therefore, the authors say that physical activity plays a very important role in weight loss and better health. Moreover, the book touches upon such urgent issues of health as eating disorders and the problems of obesity all over the world, especially in the USA.

According to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the problem with the diet of most young Americans is that more than 84% of them eat too much fat, and more than 91% eat too much-saturated fat.

However, while reading the book, I felt the deficiency of the examples of balanced nutrition in the modern world and the ways of healthy dieting. To my mind, the book gives wide coverage of healthy habits for teenagers and adults and emphasizes the importance of physical activity.

A goal should be good nutrition, not perfect nutrition. There is room in most people’s diets for occasional indulgences like chocolate cake and ice cream. There’s also room within healthy habits for occasional lazy afternoons spent lounging on the couch.

Having read the book, I asked myself several questions, such as:

Should people live on a diet?

How effective are the ways of losing weight, suggested by the authors of the article?

The Dilemmas of Obesity: How Can Physical Educators Help?

The authors of the article focus on the dilemma of obesity. They state that physical education represent a dilemma for children, because, on the one hand, they have a stereotype that PE teachers are overweight, unattractive and deficient people; on the other hand, the PE teachers are the only conductors to the healthy way of life and fit forms for children. The article puts a strong emphasis on the statistics that American society suffers from the problem of obesity. They consider that physical activity is the only way out. Moreover, the PT teachers should change their attitude and approach to the problem of obesity and obese students.

Physical educators are in a unique and indispensable position to lead the way for children to become more productive and healthy. However, traditional physical education practices will continue the oppression that the obese experience on a daily basis. Physical educators need to create a positive physical education environment that opens the gym door for everyone instead of continuing to slam it shut to groups that need their help the most.

In my opinion, the approach of the authors of the article is very constructive and gives room for comprehension. Moreover, I fully agree with the authors on the idea that the system of education can change the attitude to the problem of children and teenager obesity. However, having read the article, I still have some questions:

What is the mechanism of the implementation of the approach, suggested by the authors of the article, in practice?

What is the position of the authors concerning the dilemma of obesity? From my point of view, the title of the article does not reflect the ideas of the content in full measure.

Foodborne Illness Outbreaks. What is a Foodborne Illness Outbreak

The Website, launched by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP), gives a lot of useful information about the food-borne illnesses, safety, and legal rights of the victims of food-borne illnesses. The article gives a wide and clear definition of what a food-borne illness is, represents the statistics of food-borne illnesses outbreaks, and gives examples of the impact of the food-borne illnesses outbreak on public health. Moreover, the article touches upon the causes of an outbreak and tries to find the authorities who should be responsible for it.

To my mind, the article lacks some profound information about the causes of the food Bourne illnesses outbreaks. Moreover, I think more examples of the impact of food-borne illnesses on public health should be added. However, the advantage of the article is that it gives the contact information for a free evaluation of the cases of foodborne illnesses.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that during the years 1993 to 1997, a total of 2,751 outbreaks of food-borne illness were reported. These outbreaks resulted in the illness of approximately 86,058 people. Of those outbreaks for which the etiology was determined, bacterial pathogens caused the largest percentage (75%), followed by chemical agents (17%), viruses (6%), and parasites (2%). (CDCP).

Who is responsible for food-borne illnesses outbreaks?

What are the methods of prevention of food-borne illnesses outbreak?

Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture

The guidelines represent scientific data for the promotion of health and reduction of risks for the majority of chronic diseases by means of a balanced diet and physical activity. It is useful for policymakers, educators and all people who care for their health. The guidelines are aimed at children under two and older. The guidelines include the ways how to follow the rules of healthy dieting, nutrition, and balanced food. The document is based on the recommendations of experts in the field of healthy nutrition and exercise.

Some specific diseases linked to poor diet and physical inactivity include cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis, and certain cancers. Combined with physical activity, following a diet that does not provide excess calories according to the recommendations in this document should enhance the health of most individuals.

From my point of view, the recommendations for healthy dieting are the key elements of the guidelines. The suggestions are aimed at every target group, for example, overweight children, women of childbearing age, breastfeeding women, older adults, etc. They are valuable and can be easily applied in practice. However, despite plenty of advantages of the guidelines, their main shortcoming is the period these guidelines are aimed at. A five-year period between the new editions is a long period of time taking into consideration the prompt way of life and quickly changing environments. I think that such guidelines should be issued every year or at least once in two years. Having read the guidelines, I do not have a lot of questions; however, there is one, which interests me greatly:

What are the ways how to buy and eat only safe food?

A Good Food Attitude

The article written by Susan Gerstenzang gives a lot of advice, which can be successfully applied in practice. The author of the article emphasizes that the children copy the food behavior of their parents; consequently, it is extremely important to show a good example of eating habits to children. Gerstenzang recommends taking children to the grocery and motivating them to eat fruits and vegetables saying that it is very useful for health. Mothers should give positive comments on food. “This chicken will help you build strong muscles so you can run and play”.

From my perspective, the article is very helpful for parents who care for the health of their children. In a simple and easy-to-comprehend way Susan gives practical explanation of the fact why it is useful to eat healthy food and to do physical exercises. Personally, I like that the author gives examples how to encourage children to eat healthy meals, thus not frightening the children about the possible consequences. Moreover, Susan gives several examples of the menu for lunch.

Two things set the stage: what food you offer and how you act around it. Kids watch what you do and what you do not do. Moms have to establish and consistently model good habits.

Despite all the positive moments of this article, there are some questions that remained unanswered for me even after reading the article twice. I did not clearly understand:

How is it possible to form a positive attitude to food? What is the mechanism, owning to which a child forms these of those eating habits and attitudes to them?

The nutritional content of foods advertised during the television programs children watch most 

The article represents the research conducted by Kristen Harrison and Amy Marske about the impact of mass media on children’s choice of food purchase. Moreover, the article gives a scientific approach to the problem of the influence of TV on children’s desires to eat. According to Kristen and Amy, watching television while eating results in obesity in both children and adults. The authors believe that the main solution to the problem of childhood obesity is the limitations of the hours spent in front of TV by parents. Moreover, parents should choose programs for their children to watch, which do not contain commercial food advertising.

Although parents are typically responsible for the contents of the family pantry, television advertising does influence children’s food purchases and purchase requests. In collaboration with parental efforts, the continued investment of the medical and public health communities will be needed if parents are to be successful in helping their children resist the influence of commercial food advertising.

Before reading the article, I was aware that there is the problem of the dependence of children obesity on the commercial food advertising on TV. However, my knowledge was rather limited. After having read the article, I realized how vital the problem of children obesity caused by television is. The study conducted and described by the authors of the article shows that the daily consumption of food by children watching commercial food advertising greatly increased in comparison with data of children who eat and do not watch TV. The research seems to be rather profound, however, it evokes some questions:

What measures are taken by the government to decrease the quantity of the commercial food advertising on TV?

Who is responsible for such a strong flow of commercial food advertising on TV?

How can parents limit the quantity of commercial food advertising viewed by children?

Negative mood induction and unbalanced nutrition style as possible triggers in binge eating disorder

The authors of the article consider the problem of eating disorders from a rather scientific point of view. They make emphasis on binge eating disorders as a possible trigger of unbalanced dieting. They consider that BED is connected with psychopathology and can be of two types: anorexia and bulimia. The article is based on the study, the main goal of which was to investigate how unbalanced food influences binge eating disorder, resulting in obesity of BED patients.

A negative mood does not invariably enhance the risk of binge-eating behavior. Fat-rich, carbohydrate-low nutrition style did not influence food intake during a taste test. This finding questions the role of this specific nutrition style as a crucial factor in promoting binge eating. If replicated, these findings are important, since they could guide the development of treatment protocols.

I consider that this particular article is of great value for doctors, educators, and all people who suffer from binge eating disorders and look for ways of prevention and treatment. The study has a scientific basis and the authors describe its results in a rather readable form for any reader.

According to the authors, a negative mood does not influence unbalanced nutrition and the amount of the consumed food. In this case, which factors have the biggest influence on the BED patients?

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